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Foundations of Community Health. Introduction. In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented. Basic information about the definition and description of a community; The preparation for working in this discipline; the function,

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Foundations of Community Health


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    1. Foundations of Community Health

    2. Introduction In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented. Basic information about the definition and description of a community; The preparation for working in this discipline; the function, Roles and settings for community health nursing; culture, ethics and values to consider in the community; and the structure, function and financing of health care is focused on in this unit.

    3. Community Health Nursing Opportunities and Challenges

    4. Objectives: Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to: • Define community health and distinguish it from public health. • Explain the concept of community. • Describe three types of communities.

    5. Objectives: • Diagram the health continuum. • Differentiate among the three levels of prevention. • Analyze the six components of community health practice. • Describe the eight characteristics of community health nursing.

    6. Concept of Community • …collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging • List some communities:

    7. Community Health (CH) and Public Health (PH) • CH = “identification of needs and the protection and improvement of collective health within a geographically defined area” • PH = “activities that society undertakes to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy”

    8. Three Types of Communities 1- Geographic = city, town, neighborhood 2- Common-interest = professional organization, people with mastectomies 3- Community of solution = group of people who come together to solve a problem that affects all of them

    9. Example of Communities of Solution 13\2\1428

    10. Wellness-Illness continuum

    11. Six Components of Community Health Practice 1- Promotion of health 2- Prevention of health problems 3- Treatment of disorders 4- Rehabilitation 5- Evaluation 6- Research 13\2\1428

    12. Health Promotion • All efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or higher levels of wellness 13\2\1428

    13. Levels of Prevention: • Primary • Keep illness or injury from occurring • Secondary • Efforts to detect and treat existing disease • Tertiary • Reduce the extent and severity of a health problem to its lowest possible level to minimize disability and restore or preserve function 13\2\1428

    14. Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing 1- Field of nursing: • shift from individual to aggregate (public) 2- Combines public health with nursing • Community-based & population focused • Public health sciences & nursing theory 3- Population focused 4- Emphasizes prevention 13\2\1428

    15. Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing 5- Promotes client responsibility & self-care 6- Use aggregate assessment measurement & analysis 7- Uses principles of organizational theory 8- Involves inter-professional collaboration 13\2\1428

    16. END OF PART ONE … BYE…. 13\2\1428

    17. Evolution of Community Health Nursing 13\2\1428

    18. Objectives: Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to: • Describe the four stages of community health nursing’s development. • Analyze the impact of societal influences on the development and practice of community health nursing. • Recognize the contributions of selected nursing leaders throughout history to the advancement of community health nursing. • Explore the academic and advanced professional preparation of community health nurses. 13\2\1428

    19. Describe the four stages of community health development • Early Home Care (before Mid-1800s) • District (local) Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900) • Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970) • Community Health Nursing (1970 – present) 13\2\1428

    20. Early home care (before Mid-1800s) • Religious and charitable groups • Elizabethan Poor Law • St. Vincent de Paul • Home deliveries • Industrial revolution • Florence Nightingale & Mary Seacole 13\2\1428

    21. District Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900) • Visiting Nursing (district nursing) • Care of individuals • Religious to private philanthropy • Health visitors backbone of primary health care system 13\2\1428

    22. Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970) • Expansion to health & welfare of the general public • Specialized programs • Public Health Nursing • Teachers College • National Organization for Public Health Nursing • Henry Street Settlement • National League of Nursing Education 13\2\1428

    23. Community Health Nursing • Community Health Nursing • Public Health Nursing (Epidemiology) • Community-based clinics • Work Sites • Schools • Collaboration and interdisciplinary teamwork 13\2\1428

    24. Analyze the impact of societal influences on CHN • Advanced technology • Causal thinking • Educational changes • Role changes for women • Consumer movement & changing demographics • Economic forces 13\2\1428

    25. Identify five characteristics shared by all cultures 1- Learned 2- Integrated 3- Shared 4- Mostly tacit 5- Dynamic 13\2\1428

    26. Case Study: • Assume that you have been asked to make a home visit to a 75-year-old man living alone whose wife recently died. • Besides assessing his individual needs, what additional factors should you consider for assessment and intervention that would indicate an aggregate or population-focused approach? • What self-care practices might you encourage or teach? 13\2\1428

    27. Internet Resources • American Academy of Nursing: http://www.nursingworld.org/aan • American Assembly for Men in Nursing: http://www.aamn.org • American Nurses Association: http://www.ana.org • American Nurses Credentialing Center: http://www.nursingworld.org/ancc/index.html • American Nursing Informatics Association: http://www.ania.org • American Public Health Association: http://www.apha.org 13\2\1428

    28. Internet Resources • National Association of Hispanic Nurses: http://www.nahnhq.org • National Center for Health Statistics: http://www.cdc.gov/hchc • National League for Nursing: http://www.nln.org • Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing: http://www.nursingsociety.org • U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov 13\2\1428

    29. END OF PART TWO… BYE….

    30. Roles and Settings for CHN 13\2\1428

    31. Objectives: Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to: ● Identify the three core public health functions basic to community among seven different roles of the community health nurse. ● Discuss the seven roles within the framework of public health nursing functions. ● Explain the importance of each role for influencing people’s health. 13\2\1428

    32. Objectives: ● Identify and discuss factors that affect a nurse’s selection and practice of each role. ● Describe seven settings in which community health nurses practice. ● Discuss the nature of community health nursing, and the common threads basic to its practice, woven throughout all roles and settings. ● Identify principles of sound nursing practice in the community. 13\2\1428

    33. Three Core PH Functions 1) Assessment • Regular collection, analysis and sharing of information about health conditions, risks and resources in a community 2) Policy Development • Use of assessment data to develop policy and direct resources toward those policies 3) Assurance • Availability of necessary services throughout the community 13\2\1428

    34. Seven Roles & Influence on People’s Health 1- Clinician: focus on holism, health promotion, & prevention while using expanded skills 2- Educator: plan for community-wide impact 3- Advocate: Support client self-determination and responsive systems 13\2\1428

    35. How Roles & Factors Influence People’s Health 4- Manager: Participative approach with community 5- Collaborator: multidisciplinary collegiality and leadership 6- Leadership: Change agent 7- Researcher: Systematic investigation, collection, and analysis of data for solving problems and bring evidence-based findings to community settings 13\2\1428

    36. Seven Settings • Homes • Ambulatory Service • Schools • Occupational Health • Residential Institutions • Parishes • Community at Large 13\2\1428

    37. Nature & Common Threads Basic to Practice • Many nursing roles • Special skill sets • Assessment • Policy Development • Assurance • Variety of clients in specific situations • Collaboration with other institutions • Schools & Parishes • Occupational Health 13\2\1428

    38. Principles of Sound Community Nursing Practice • Standards of practice • Standards of care • Management essential to all nursing roles • Community Nursing Process: assessment, planning, implementation, & evaluation • Case management • Essential Behaviors • Decision-making • Transferring information • Relationship building 13\2\1428

    39. Internet Resources • A Day in the Life of Public Health • http://www.apha.org/career/dayinlife.htm • Public Health Nursing Section of APHA • http://www.csuchico.edu/~horst/ • Ten Essential Services of Public Health • http://www.apha.org/ppp/science/10ES.htm 13\2\1428

    40. TANK YOU …. 13\2\1428