Foundations of community health
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Foundations of Community Health. Introduction. In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented. Basic information about the definition and description of a community; The preparation for working in this discipline; the function,

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In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented.

Basic information about the definition and description of a community;

The preparation for working in this discipline; the function,

Roles and settings for community health nursing; culture, ethics and values to consider in the community; and the structure, function and financing of health care is focused on in this unit.

Community health nursing opportunities and challenges

Community Health Nursing Opportunities and Challenges


Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Define community health and distinguish it from public health.

  • Explain the concept of community.

  • Describe three types of communities.


  • Diagram the health continuum.

  • Differentiate among the three levels of prevention.

  • Analyze the six components of community health practice.

  • Describe the eight characteristics of community health nursing.

Concept of community
Concept of Community

  • …collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging

  • List some communities:

Community health ch and public health ph
Community Health (CH) and Public Health (PH)

  • CH = “identification of needs and the protection and improvement of collective health within a geographically defined area”

  • PH = “activities that society undertakes to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy”

Three types of communities
Three Types of Communities

1- Geographic = city, town, neighborhood

2- Common-interest = professional organization, people with mastectomies

3- Community of solution = group of people who come together to solve a problem that affects all of them

Example of communities of solution
Example of Communities of Solution


Six components of community health practice
Six Components of Community Health Practice

1- Promotion of health

2- Prevention of health problems

3- Treatment of disorders

4- Rehabilitation

5- Evaluation

6- Research


Health promotion
Health Promotion

  • All efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or higher levels of wellness


Levels of prevention
Levels of Prevention:

  • Primary

    • Keep illness or injury from occurring

  • Secondary

    • Efforts to detect and treat existing disease

  • Tertiary

    • Reduce the extent and severity of a health problem to its lowest possible level to minimize disability and restore or preserve function


Describe eight characteristics of community health nursing
Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing

1- Field of nursing:

  • shift from individual to aggregate (public)

    2- Combines public health with nursing

  • Community-based & population focused

  • Public health sciences & nursing theory

    3- Population focused

    4- Emphasizes prevention


Describe eight characteristics of community health nursing1
Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing

5- Promotes client responsibility & self-care

6- Use aggregate assessment measurement & analysis

7- Uses principles of organizational theory

8- Involves inter-professional collaboration


End of part one




Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Describe the four stages of community health nursing’s development.

  • Analyze the impact of societal influences on the development and practice of community health nursing.

  • Recognize the contributions of selected nursing leaders throughout history to the advancement of community health nursing.

  • Explore the academic and advanced professional preparation of community health nurses.


Describe the four stages of community health development
Describe the four stages of community health development

  • Early Home Care (before Mid-1800s)

  • District (local) Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900)

  • Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970)

  • Community Health Nursing (1970 – present)


Early home care before mid 1800s
Early home care (before Mid-1800s)

  • Religious and charitable groups

  • Elizabethan Poor Law

  • St. Vincent de Paul

  • Home deliveries

  • Industrial revolution

  • Florence Nightingale & Mary Seacole


District nursing mid 1800s to 1900
District Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900)

  • Visiting Nursing (district nursing)

  • Care of individuals

  • Religious to private philanthropy

  • Health visitors backbone of primary health care system


Public health nursing 1900 1970
Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970)

  • Expansion to health & welfare of the general public

  • Specialized programs

  • Public Health Nursing

    • Teachers College

    • National Organization for Public Health Nursing

    • Henry Street Settlement

  • National League of Nursing Education


Community health nursing
Community Health Nursing

  • Community Health Nursing

    • Public Health Nursing (Epidemiology)

    • Community-based clinics

    • Work Sites

    • Schools

  • Collaboration and interdisciplinary teamwork


Analyze the impact of societal influences on chn
Analyze the impact of societal influences on CHN

  • Advanced technology

  • Causal thinking

  • Educational changes

  • Role changes for women

  • Consumer movement & changing demographics

  • Economic forces


Identify five characteristics shared by all cultures
Identify five characteristics shared by all cultures

1- Learned

2- Integrated

3- Shared

4- Mostly tacit

5- Dynamic


Case study
Case Study:

  • Assume that you have been asked to make a home visit to a 75-year-old man living alone whose wife recently died.

    • Besides assessing his individual needs, what additional factors should you consider for assessment and intervention that would indicate an aggregate or population-focused approach?

    • What self-care practices might you encourage or teach?


Internet resources
Internet Resources

  • American Academy of Nursing:

  • American Assembly for Men in Nursing:

  • American Nurses Association:

  • American Nurses Credentialing Center:

  • American Nursing Informatics Association:

  • American Public Health Association:


Internet resources1
Internet Resources

  • National Association of Hispanic Nurses:

  • National Center for Health Statistics:

  • National League for Nursing:

  • Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing:

  • U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics:



Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

● Identify the three core public health functions basic to community among seven different roles of the community health nurse.

● Discuss the seven roles within the framework of public health nursing functions.

● Explain the importance of each role for influencing people’s health.



● Identify and discuss factors that affect a nurse’s selection and practice of each role.

● Describe seven settings in which community health nurses practice.

● Discuss the nature of community health nursing, and the common threads basic to its practice, woven throughout all roles and settings.

● Identify principles of sound nursing practice in the community.


Three core ph functions
Three Core PH Functions

1) Assessment

  • Regular collection, analysis and sharing of information about health conditions, risks and resources in a community

    2) Policy Development

  • Use of assessment data to develop policy and direct resources toward those policies

    3) Assurance

  • Availability of necessary services throughout the community


Seven roles influence on people s health
Seven Roles & Influence on People’s Health

1- Clinician: focus on holism, health promotion, & prevention while using expanded skills

2- Educator: plan for community-wide impact

3- Advocate: Support client self-determination and responsive systems


How roles factors influence people s health
How Roles & Factors Influence People’s Health

4- Manager: Participative approach with community

5- Collaborator: multidisciplinary collegiality and leadership

6- Leadership: Change agent

7- Researcher: Systematic investigation, collection, and analysis of data for solving problems and bring evidence-based findings to community settings


Seven settings
Seven Settings

  • Homes

  • Ambulatory Service

  • Schools

  • Occupational Health

  • Residential Institutions

  • Parishes

  • Community at Large


Nature common threads basic to practice
Nature & Common Threads Basic to Practice

  • Many nursing roles

  • Special skill sets

    • Assessment

    • Policy Development

    • Assurance

  • Variety of clients in specific situations

  • Collaboration with other institutions

    • Schools & Parishes

    • Occupational Health


Principles of sound community nursing practice
Principles of Sound Community Nursing Practice

  • Standards of practice

  • Standards of care

  • Management essential to all nursing roles

    • Community Nursing Process: assessment, planning, implementation, & evaluation

    • Case management

  • Essential Behaviors

    • Decision-making

    • Transferring information

    • Relationship building


Internet resources2
Internet Resources

  • A Day in the Life of Public Health


  • Public Health Nursing Section of APHA


  • Ten Essential Services of Public Health



Tank you