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URINARY SYSTEM. URINARY SYSTEM: OVERVIEW. Cellular wastes are toxic if not removed Waste removal (from cells) is performed by blood and lymph Elimination of wastes Urinary system: H 2 O, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, drugs Respiratory system: CO 2 and H 2 O

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urinary system overview
URINARY SYSTEM: OVERVIEW
  • Cellular wastes are toxic if not removed
  • Waste removal (from cells) is performed by blood and lymph
  • Elimination of wastes
    • Urinary system: H2O, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, drugs
    • Respiratory system: CO2 and H2O
    • Integumentary system: H2O, electrolytes
urinary system functions
URINARY SYSTEM: FUNCTIONS
  • Waste removal
  • Maintenance of water/electrolyte balance
  • Regulation of body fluid volume and blood pressure
  • Control of RBC production
anatomy macroscopic
ANATOMY: MACROSCOPIC
  • Kidneys (2): Filter, reabsorb, secrete
  • Ureters (2): Convey urine to bladder
  • Urinary bladder (1): Collects and stores urine
  • Urethra (1): Conveys urine out of body
anatomy kidney
Red-brown, bean shaped

Enclosed in fibrous capsule

Retroperitoneal

Surrounded by adipose tissue

ANATOMY: KIDNEY

Continued ...

anatomy kidney continued
Hilum or Hilus (Indentation; Passage of Vessels, Nerves, etc.)

Renal Cortex (Outer)

Renal medulla (Inner)

Renal Pyramids (Conical Masses)

Renal Columns (Extensions of Cortical Tissue between Pyramids)

ANATOMY: KIDNEY continued
anatomy kidney continued10
Functional Units: Nephrons

Renal Papillae (Tip of Pyramid)

Minor Calyces (“Cup” receives Urine from Collecting Duct/Renal Papillae)

Major Calyces (Receives from Minor C.)

Renal Pelvis (Expanded Proximal End Ureter)

ANATOMY: KIDNEY continued
anatomy ureters
Hollow tubes ~25cm (10”) in length

Extend from kidneys to urinary bladder

Located retroperitoneally

Muscular walls undergo peristalsis

Flaps of Mucosa at openings into bladder; prevent backflow

ANATOMY: URETERS
anatomy urinary bladder
Hollow, muscular, distensible sac

Located in true pelvis, subperitoneally

Attached to pelvic floor at trigone

3 layers:

Inner muscosa (Transitional E.T. allows filling w/o pressure increase)

Middle detrusor muscle (smooth)

Outer Adventitia

Serosa (visceral peritoneum) covers only superior surface

ANATOMY: URINARY BLADDER
anatomy urethra
ANATOMY: URETHRA
  • Males
    • Combined Urogenital System
    • Long urethra (~18 cm) in three subdivisions
      • Prostatic urethra
      • Membranous urethra
      • Penile or spongy urethra
  • Females
    • Separate reproductive and urinary systems
    • Short urethra (~4 cm)
anatomy microscopic
Nephron: Functional unit of kidney

Approximately 1 million/kidney

Found Mostly in Renal Cortex

Consists of :

Renal Corpuscle (Glomerulus + Bowman’s Capsule)

Renal Tubules (Proximal & Distal Convoluted Tubules + Loop of Henle)

Collecting Duct – Receives from Multiple Nephrons

ANATOMY: MICROSCOPIC
urine formation
URINE FORMATION
  • Three Processes:
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
    • Secretion
  • Countercurrent Exchange
    • fluids moving in opposite directions
glomerular filtration
Depends on blood pressure (“Pressure Filtration”)

Afferent Arteriole carries blood to Glomerulus

Small molecules and water move through Walls of Glomerulus into Bowman’s Capsule

Fluid is filtrate

Includes most substances found in urine

Filtrate is similar to plasma (Water, Glucose, Ions, Amino Acids, small Nitrogenous Wastes)

GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
tubular reabsorption
Selective Movement of molecules from renal tubules back into blood

PCT Reabsorbs Water, Glucose, Amino Acids, Ions (up to 80% of filtrate)

Loop of Henle (& Collecting Duct) Concentrates Urine/Reabsorbs Water & Ions

Microvilli for High SA & Absorption

TUBULAR REABSORPTION
tubular secretion
Primarily in DCT (& Collecting Duct)

Additional Molecules move: Blood  Renal Tubules

Active Transport or Osmosis

Water

Ions (H+, K+, Na+,Cl-)

Some drugs, e.g., penicillin

Creatinine

Nitrogenous wastes

TUBULAR SECRETION
urine pathway
URINE PATHWAY
  • Nephron  Collecting Duct (Out Renal Papilla of Renal Pyramid)  Minor Calyx  Major Calyx  Renal Pelvis  Ureter  Urinary Bladder  Urethra  Outside Body
composition of urine normal
95% water

pH 6.0 (avg.)

Urea: From proteins

Uric acid: From nucleic acids

Creatinine: From creatine phosphate

Amino acids: A trace

Electrolytes: Vary with diet

COMPOSITION OF URINE: NORMAL
regulation of fluid volume
REGULATION OF FLUID VOLUME
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Released when blood volume drops
    • Increases permeability of collecting duct to water
    • Results in:
      • Increase in Water Reabsorption (decreases water loss)
      • Increase in Blood Volume
regulation of fluid volume continued
REGULATION OF FLUID VOLUME continued
  • Relationship of blood pressure to urine formation
    • Blood pressure is required for glomerular filtration
    • If blood pressure falls below a certain point, filtration stops
    • Results in build-up of nitrogenous wastes