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School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene SNV Experience. Call to Action – WASH in Schools Meeting The Hague, May 2011. About SNV. WASH in Schools in SNV. Cambodia: “Unlocking Toilet Doors, Unblocking Student’s Access to School Sanitation” Initiative and WASH in Schools advocacy.

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school water sanitation and hygiene snv experience

School Water, Sanitation and HygieneSNV Experience

Call to Action – WASH in Schools Meeting

The Hague, May 2011

wash in schools in snv
WASH in Schools in SNV
  • Cambodia: “Unlocking Toilet Doors, Unblocking Student’s Access to School Sanitation” Initiative and WASH in Schools advocacy.
  • Lao/Ethiopia: CLTS in Schools via fun games and songs
  • Tanzania: From School WASH mapping to policy changes and advocacy for WASH in Schools.
structure of the presentation
Structure of the Presentation


About School WASH Mapping

Challenges Ahead

school wash mapping background
School WASH Mapping - Background
  • A joint initiative by SNV – UNICEF- WaterAid in 2,300 schools in16 districts (2009)
  • Purpose: To get a comprehensive picture of WASH situation in all schools in the selected districts; to explore the underlying causes of the (poor) situation; and to develop strategies for improvement
  • Physical mapping: Data collection
  • Governance and Validation Inquiry
  • District Feedback Meetings
  • National Stakeholders Workshop
facts and figures
Facts and Figures
  • 11% of schools meet the minimum standard in pupil/DH
  • 6% (or 174 schools) has no latrines
  • 20% (or 562 schools) has over 100 pupil per drop hole
  • 6% of the existing latrine is rated as “good standard”
  • 9% of all school is rated as having “clean” latrines
  • 1% has soap, 4% has adequate water; 6% has HW facilities
    • 4% school has facilities for children and adults with disabilities
    • 48% of latrines for girls has no door
  • 43% have never been inspected on WASH situation by LGAs
  • Latrines have never been emptied in most school
underlying causes
Underlying causes

Facilities (quality and quantity)

Governance structure

Resource allocation & management

Poor WASH situation in Schools

severe lack of facilities


Rapid deterioration of facilities

A major barrier to hygiene education

Inadequate facilities(quality and quantity)

Heavy burden for effective O&M

Facilities become abandoned or unused

Not attractive to use by children

Severe lack of facilities
weak governance structure
Weak Governance Structure
  • Unclear role; responsibility and ownership
  • Unclear and ineffective coordination on funding and institutional arrangements at National level
  • No arrangement for O&M of Facilities
  • Inadequate inspection and enforcement
  • Low level of community participation and consultation
  • Weak leadership and guidance from LGAs and Village Government
  • Low level of trust between community and village leaders
poor resource allocation and management
Poor Resource Allocation and Management
  • Discrepancy between schools in urban and rural/remote area
  • CG/LGCDG are late, fragmented; inadequate; unpredictable
  • Weak transparency on resource allocation
  • Top down direction on fund utilization
  • No distinction between government’s fund and parent’s contribution
  • Low priority given to School WASH at all levels
  • Focus more on quality (of the learning environment and achievement) and not just quantity (enrolment rate)
  • Strengthen national coordination and management for School WASH
  • Identify champion to strengthen political support and priority for SWASH
  • Strengthen SWASH monitoring, inspection and enforcement
  • Explore fund flow mechanisms for SWASH from central government to schools
  • Provide financial incentives for good performing schools
  • Improve financial transparency at all levels
  • Strengthen community involvement and ownership in SWASH
  • Strengthen home and school linkages to improve the effectiveness of SWASH
from mapping to action achievements to date
From Mapping to Action: Achievements to Date

MOU Between 4 Ministries responsible for Sanitation and Hygiene signed in 2010 and is being operationalised

National School WASH Guidelines to be developed by 4 Ministries with support from SNV and UNICEF (2010)

National Strategic Plan for School WASH (2010 – 2015)

National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy is being developed (with higher priority and attention given to WASH in Schools)

Thematic Working Group for School WASH established in 2010; chaired by MOH and MOEVT; supported by SNV and UNICEF


MOHSW Management Committee

(Meets weekly)

National Sanitation & Hygiene

Steering Committee


Chair: MOHSW

(Meets 2 times a year)

Water Sector Development Programme

Water Sector Working Group (WSWG)

(Meets 4 times a year)

Education Sector Development Committee (ESDC) (Meets 4 times/year)

Education Sector Development Committee Task Force

(Meet 4 times/year)

Health Sector


Technical Committee – Health SWAp

(Meets twice/ year)

Thematic Working Group: Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Component (Meet 8 time/ year)

Thematic Working Group: Urban Water Supply & Sewerage Component (Meets 8 times a year)

National Sanitation & Hygiene Technical Committee (NSHTC)

Chair: MOHSW

(Meets 4 times a year)

Education Sector

Cross Cutting Issues

Technical Working Group

(Meet 4 times/ year)

Health Promotion (Sanitation, Hygiene, Environmental Health Management and Climate Change)

Technical Working Group


Chair: MOHSW

(Meets 12 times a year)

Environmental Health & Climate Change Sub-Group

Co-Chairs: NEMC & MOHSW

(Meet 6 times/year)

Household Sanitation & Hygiene

Technical Working Group



Supporting DPs: WSP & WaterAid

(Meets 6 times a year)

School WASH

Technical Working Group


Co-Chairs: MOEVT & MOHSW

Supporting DPs: UNICEF & SNV

(Meets 6 times a year)


reflection on the 6 key messages
Reflection on the 6 key messages
  • Contribute evidence: Yes, very much
  • Increase investment : Potentially high
  • Demonstrate quality : Not yet showed results
  • Monitor WASH in Schools: Still weak with no enforcement, need to be linked to performance monitoring and incentive-based fund allocation
  • Involve multiple stakeholders: Starting
  • Engage those who set policies: Yes, very much
taking wash in schools to scale challenges ahead
Low priority for WASH in Schools: A difficult trade-off

Teachers participation: Workload vs. motivation and incentive

Engaging community and parents participation: Building trust & cohesion; changing of mind-set

Enforcing minimum standard vs. fund availability

Investing in WASH in Schools: Some for All or All for Some?

Coordination at all levels: Agreeing on roles; responsibilities and mandates; harmonizing guidelines and standards.

Performance monitoring

Uncoordinated Funding for WASH in Schools

Political interference vs. Political support

Taking WASH in Schools to Scale - Challenges Ahead!