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The Sybil Attack, J. R. Douceur, IPTPS 2002. Clifton Forlines CSC2231 Online Social Networks 11/1/2007. Outline. Brief overview of the paper Discussion on differences between P2P networks and OSN and on how this effects Sybil attacks. “Sybil” (1973) by Flora Rheta Schreiber

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the sybil attack j r douceur iptps 2002
The Sybil Attack, J. R. Douceur, IPTPS 2002.

Clifton Forlines

CSC2231 Online Social Networks

11/1/2007

outline
Outline
  • Brief overview of the paper
  • Discussion on differences between P2P networks and OSN and on how this effects Sybil attacks
sybil attack
“Sybil” (1973) by Flora Rheta Schreiber

Attacker creates multiple identities to control a large portion of the network and overcome redundancy

Sybil Attack
identity validation
Identity Validation
  • How does an entity know that two identities come from different entities?
  • Centralized server is one option
  • Douceur mentions three mechanisms of testing independence of identities in P2P
    • Communication
    • Computation
    • Storage
identity validation5
Identity Validation
  • Four Lemmas “prove” that Sybil attacks are always possible without centralized authority
lemma 1
Lemma 1
  • Because entities are heterogeneous in terms of capabilities, a malicious entity can create several “minimal” identities
  • Lower-bound on number of identities
lemma 2
Lemma 2
  • Unless identities are tested simultaneously, a compromised entity can create any number of identities
  • Simultaneous identity verification not practical
lemma 3
Lemma 3
  • If a certain number of identities must vouch for a new identity for it to be accepted, then a set of compromised identities can create any number of new fake identities
lemma 4
Lemma 4
  • Without simultaneous validation of identities by a set of trusted entities, a single faulty entity can present many identities.
  • Again, simultaneous validation is difficult in real-world networks.
overview conclusion
Overview Conclusion
  • Networks require centralized authority to validate network identities
  • Without one, Sybil attacks are always a possibility
identity validation in an osn
Identity Validation in an OSN
  • Douceur mentions three mechanisms of testing independence of identities in P2P
    • Communication
    • Computation
    • Storage
  • What mechanisms exist for social networks?
identity validation14
Identity Validation
  • OSN have lots of techniques to validate identities that are not present in P2P
network17
Network

What about the links?

links in a social network
Links in a Social Network
  • What are the Differences between links in a P2P network and links in an on-line social network?
links in a social network19
Links in a Social Network
  • What are the Differences between links in a P2P network and links in an on-line social network?
    • Links in OSN correspond to real-world links
links in a social network20
Links in a Social Network
  • What are the Differences between links in a P2P network and links in an on-line social network?
    • Links in OSN correspond to real-world links
    • Links in OSN take time and effort to setup
links in a social network21
Links in a Social Network
  • What are the Differences between links in a P2P network and links in an on-line social network?
    • Links in OSN correspond to real-world links
    • Links in OSN take time and effort to setup
    • Links in OSN cluster and have high # of intra-cluster connections
links in a social network22
Links in a Social Network
  • What does a link in a social network signify?
links in a social network23
Links in a Social Network
  • What does a link in a social network signify?
    • Indicates trust
links in a social network24
Links in a Social Network
  • What does a link in a social network signify?
    • Indicates trust
    • Vouches for individual
links in a social network25
Links in a Social Network
  • How many links can a malicious node in a P2P network create?
  • How many in an OSN?
links in a social network26
Links in a Social Network
  • How many links can a malicious entity in a P2P network create?
    • As many as one wants. (mostly)
  • How many in an OSN?
    • As many as one has time and effort to create.
network27
Network

What about the links?

summary
Summary
  • OSN have lots of techniques to validate identities that are not present in P2P
  • Links in an OSN
    • Indicates trust
    • Vouches for individual
    • correspond to real-world links
    • take time and effort to setup
    • cluster and have high # of intra-cluster connections
  • Malicious entity can only create as many links as they have time and effort to create.
other discussion topics
Other Discussion Topics
  • IPv6 privacy (mentioned in paper)
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