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Origins of the New South Reconfiguration of southern agriculture. Postwar economic conditions : *Economy: at a standstill *Transportation system: broken *Economic lifeblood—agriculture: crippled *Labor system—slavery: collapsed *Seed and livestock: scarce, plundered.

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origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Postwar economic conditions:

*Economy: at a standstill

*Transportation system: broken

*Economic lifeblood—agriculture: crippled

*Labor system—slavery: collapsed

*Seed and livestock: scarce, plundered

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture1

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

*Blacks and poor whites forced into sharecropping° + tenant farming

*At mercy of former masters, now their landlords/creditors

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture2

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

*sharecropping (defined):

*Postwar agricultural system in which black and poor white farmers rented land and residences from former planters in exchange for a “share” of each harvest.

*Dominant form of postwar southern agriculture.

*Landowners manipulated this system to keep tenants in perpetual debt and unable to leave.

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture3

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

*CROP LIEN system

*storekeepers extended credit to small farmers for food and supplies

*in return, they took a lien (legal claim on someone’s property) on their harvests

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture4

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

*Southern blacks were condemned to eke out a threadbare living under conditions scarcely better than slavery

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture5

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

Certainty of labor supply was reinforced by...

*Jim Crow (legal codes of segregation)

*Disfranchisement (literacy tests, poll taxes, voter registration laws)

*Plessy v Ferguson (“separate but equal” was constitutional under the 14th Amendment)

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture6

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

Post-Reconstruction Economy

*To ensure the stability of this political and economic “new order” any black who dared to violate the racial code was dealt with harshly: usually by lynching

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture7

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

*Industrial tidal wave in the North resulted in only feeble ripples in the South

*Welcome agricultural boost in 1880s:

machine-made cigarettes  James Duke  American Tobacco Company, Durham NC

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture8

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

*Industrialists tried to coax southerners out of the fields into the factories—modest success

*Booster of the “New South” = Henry Grady, editor of Atlanta Constitution: outplay the Yankees in their commercial/industrial game

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture9

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

New South faced obstacles

Railroads’ regional price discrimination

Preferential rates for North

moving manufactured goods South

but only favored the South in

transporting raw materials North

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture10

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

Example of this economic discrimination—Pittsburgh plus pricing scheme

Birmingham, AL coal + iron deposits should have produced prosperous steel manufacturing

BUT steel lords of Pittsburgh pressured railroads to add fictional fee to Birmingham steel,

thus stunting Southern economic growth

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture11

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

Manufacturing cotton textiles

“BRING THE MILLS TO THE COTTON!”

1880s saw Northern investment in Southern looms:

*Tax benefits

*Cheap, nonunionized labor

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture12

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

Manufacturing cotton textiles

“BRING THE MILLS TO THE COTTON!”

This was a mixed blessing

Cheap labor = main attraction

Thus, keeping labor cheap became sacred

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture13

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

Manufacturing cotton textiles

Mill work was available only to whites

Entire families of “hillbillies”/”lint-heads” came to work in hastily constructed company mill towns where the company owned/controlled everything:

houses, stores, schools, medical care, etc.

origins of the new south reconfiguration of southern agriculture14

Origins of the New SouthReconfiguration of southern agriculture

The South in the Age of Industry

Manufacturing cotton textiles

Southern mill workers worked from dawn to dusk for ½ of Northern mill workers’ rate

“Payment” was often in company scrip = non-legal tender worthless anywhere else

Workers paid exorbitant prices at company stores, which kept them in perpetual debt and “locked in”

origins of the new south expansion of manufacturing industrialization

Origins of the New SouthExpansion of manufacturing & industrialization

Despite some measurable growth, the South remained largely untouched by the Industrial Revolution sweeping the rest of America.

origins of the new south the politics of segregation

Origins of the New SouthThe politics of segregation

POPULISTS, AGRARIAN UNREST AND 1892 ELECTION:

>1m black farmers Colored Farmers’ National Alliance, sharing complaints w/poor white farmers

Common economic goals lead both groups closer to overcoming racial differences

origins of the new south the politics of segregation1

Origins of the New SouthThe politics of segregation

POPULISTS, AGRARIAN UNREST

AND 1892 ELECTION:

Blacks, many of whom could still vote at that time,

gave Populists an edge

Populist leaders like Tom Watson, from Georgia, reached out to black voters

Blacks, disillusioned with Republicans, were willing to vote for Populists in the South

origins of the new south the politics of segregation2

Origins of the New SouthThe politics of segregation

POPULISTS, AGRARIAN UNREST

AND 1892 ELECTION:

Alarmed conservative white “bourbon”

(and Democratic) Southern elites

played on old racial antagonisms

to counter the Populists’ appeal

for interracial solidarity

origins of the new south the politics of segregation3

Origins of the New SouthThe politics of segregation

POPULISTS, AGRARIAN UNREST AND 1892 ELECTION:

Frightened by the power of the black vote,

they aggressively used...

literacy tests,

poll taxes, and

the grandfather clause

to disfranchise blacks

origins of the new south the politics of segregation4

Origins of the New SouthThe politics of segregation

POPULISTS, AGRARIAN UNREST AND 1892 ELECTION:

This conservative crusade to eliminate the black vote affected the Populist Party itself.

Tom Watson became a rabid racist and, with him, the Populist party—bitterly ironic fruits of Populist attempt at reforms in the South.