CHAPTER 23 THE COUNTRIES OF SOUTHWEST ASIA
CREATING THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST • Due to its location, The Middle East has long been a “hot-spot” • Crossroads of Europe, Africa & Asia • After being repeatedly conquered, a tangle of diverse ethnic/religious groups live here
UNITING PEOPLES • After Islam conquered the region: • Most of the conquered people adopted Islam. • Exceptions were Christians and Jews • During the 8th century, the Ottoman Turks (Turkey) conquered the region • The Turks also adopted Islam. • However, during the 1800s, the many different ethnic groups began to resist Turkish rule.
WORLD WAR I Great Britain, France & Russia (Allies) Verses Germany, Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Turks (Central Powers) • Sure of a victory, the Allies began secret meeting on how to divide the Middle East. • The Arabs were given most all of the desert areas of the Arabian Peninsula • France & Great Britain took the rest as a mandate
Mandate: Land ruled by another country until that land is ready for independence
ARABS AND JEWS • By the 1940s, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq became independent • Palestine was a big problem • Palestine (now Israel) was claimed by both Jews and Arabs
THE JEWISH STORY • For centuries, Jews were treated badly and even killed simply for being Jews • During the early 1900s, Jews began to immigrate to Palestine (Israel) • Zionists: Jews who believed that the only way to stop this persecution was to create their own country in Palestine • They did…almost ½ million Jews came to Palestine by 1939 • However, this made the Arabs nervous
THE ARAB STORY • Great Britain had promised the Arabs Self-Determination • Self-Determination: One’s right to decide one’s own political future • All these Jews were taking land that the Arabs claimed • Arabs boycotted anything Jewish and destroying Jewish property • The Jews retaliated, and people died.
CREATION OF ISRAEL • After WW-II and the Holocaust, the world supported a Jewish homeland in Palestine • Arabs were bitterly opposed • Great Britain decided to split Palestine into two sections: • One Jewish • One Arab
CREATION OF ISRAEL • The Jews accepted the British proposal • The Arabs were very angry, and refused to accept the proposal • In May of 1948, Israel announced their independence
CREATION OF ISRAEL • Within hours, neighboring Arab countries attacked vowing to drive all Jews out of Palestine and into the sea. • By the end of the 1948 war, however, Israel controlled ¾ of Palestine. • Jordan and Egypt annexed the rest. • Palestinian Arabs were left with nothing.
ISRAEL: A DETERMINED COUNTRY • Since independence, Israel has rapidly modernized. • Israel is now one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world
CHANGING THE LAND • Technology transforms the desert: • Negev Desert is one of the driest places in Israel. • Israel set up a 100 mile pipeline to bring irrigation water into this area (called the National Water Carrier) • This region is now fertile green land • Drip Irrigation: water drips onto roots of plants saving precious water • Israel produces almost all of itsown food
CHANGING THE LAND • Mining the Dead Sea • Due to the high levels of salt and minerals, fish cannot live here • Israel built processing-plants and is extracting: • Salt • Potash • Bromine • These are exported worldwide
CHANGING THE LAND • Settlements in the desert: • Few peopleactually wantedto move into desert areas • Workers were offered high wages and extra time off of work • High in human resources • Highly trained and educated population • ¾ of the population work in service jobs…education, tourism & housing
DIVERSE CITIZENS • Israel continually encourages Jews to immigrate from around the world • Two groups of Jews: • European Jews: • More educated • Higher income • Sephardic Jews: • From S. W. Asia • Poorer • Less educated
ISRAEL'S ARABS • 20 % OF THE POPULATION • Some are Christians • Some are Muslims • Some are Druzes (broke-away from Islam) • Full citizens of Israel • Have full political rights • Complain that they are discriminated against in society
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • Palestinian Refugees: • After Israel declared their independence in 1948, all of the Arab countries surrounding Israel attacked. • By the end of the war, Israel had won most of the land and ½ million Palestinian Arabs had left for other Arab countries. • Most Arab countries expelled any Jewish people and these Jews were settled in Israel
Egypt took the Gaza strip • Jordan took the West Bank • Many Arabs moved into these regions
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • In 1967, the Arab countries attacked again…and again they lost. • During the fighting, the Israelis took control of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • The Palestinian Arabs who left during the fighting, were not allowed back into the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. • By this time, there were more than 1 million refugees living in other Arab countries • Some of these Arabs organized the P.L.O. • Palestinian Liberation Organization
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • Out of these refugee camps came P.L.O. terrorists who, in the name of Allah,: • Hijacked commercial jetliners • Kidnapped and killed Israeli people • Raided Israeli communities • Committed suicidebombings
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • Israel, in turn, began to conduct military raids on P.L.O. terrorist-bases, mostly in Lebanon. • In 1982, Israel attacked Lebanon in a final attempt to crush these terrorists. • Meanwhile, many Israelis were starting settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. • This created more pressure and violence
STRUGGLE FOR PEACE • STRUGGLE FOR A SOLUTION • From this time through today, many people have died. • In 1978, Egypt made peace and “recognized” Israel. • In 1994, Jordan also “recognized” Israel. • Political Recognition: When one country officially acknowledges that another country (and its government) exists.
With these two major “neighbors” at peace, Israel agrees to give back some land and give some freedoms to the Palestinian Arabs
MORE CONFLICT • 1987, Palestinian youth in the Gaza Strip began throwing rocks at Israelis • Arabs called this uprising the “Intifada” (in-tee-FAH-dah) • 1993, Both sides recognized each other’s right to exist • Israel gave the Palestinians the GazaStrip • Palestinian terrorists began suicidebombings in Israel • Israel stalled the peace talks
THE CONFLICT TODAY • Over the past year, many Israelis have lost their lives due to P.L.O. terrorist bombings; • First, car-bombs • Now suicide-bombers • Israel is building a wall around the Gaza Strip to keep the terrorists out.
Jordan: A Fragile Kingdom • Part of “Fertile Crescent” • First civilizations developed • Fertile farmland • Most of Jordan is dry, rocky desert • However, after the 1948 war with Israel, Jordan annexed the West Bank…WHY? • Simple, this gave Jordan fertile land for growing crops So much for Arab brotherhood
Jordan: A Fragile Kingdom • Problems came for Jordan during the Six-Day-war (1967) when the Arabs once again attacked Israel and lost. • Israel gained control of the West Bank, Jordan’s main source of agriculture and income
Jordan: A Fragile Kingdom • Palestinian Movement to Jordan: • After every war, many Palestinians moved to Jordan • Today, ½ of Jordan’s population • A Modern Country: • King Hussein combined Islam with modern political reforms to bring Jordan into the 20th century
LEBANON: A Nervous Peace • Mild, Mediterranean climate • Beautiful Beaches • Positive political atmosphere • Once had a thriving economy • Called “The Paris of the Middle East” • This all ended with a civil-war
LEBANON: A Nervous Peace • Beginning of the War: • Power sharing was agreed to by the % of peoples • Most power went to the Christians who had the largest population • Second largest group were the Muslims • Third were the Greek Orthodox Christians • This system worked wellfor years
LEBANON: A Nervous Peace • Growing Muslim population: • Demanded more power • In 1975, civil-war broke out between the Christians and the Muslims • This war was “fueled” by the immigration of thousands of Palestinians from Israel • P.L.O. set up terrorist camps and raided across the Israeli border
LEBANON: A Nervous Peace • In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon and defeated the P.L.O. and drove them out of Lebanon • Many countries, including the U. S. tried to intervene. • In October, 1983, a truck-bomb blew up outside a U. S. Marine barracks killing 241 Americans • The U. S. left and the country fell apart. • Both sides agreed to stop fighting in the 1990’s…and so they did???
SYRIA: A Troubled Land • Fertile farmlands, but outdated farming methods • Recently, the Syrian government began building dams for irrigation and hydroelectricity • Unfortunately, Turkey (Syria's northern neighbor) has also built dams bringing less water to Syria • Syria’s ruler, General Assad allows little political or personal freedoms • His son took power in 2000, but there is little change
IRAQ: The Spoils of War • Most of Iraq lies on a plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers • Iraq has large oil reserves • During the 1980s, Iraq went to war with Iran over a disputed border. • After thousands were killed, both sides gave up with no gain to either
IRAQ: The Spoils of War • The Persian Gulf War: • In 1990, Iraq attacked its neighbor Kuwait seeking to control world oil production • Within a year, the U. S. and other countries freed Kuwait • Iraq agreed to cease-fire, but soon refused to follow the terms of the agreement • The U. N. placed an embargo on Iraq • Embargo: severe restrictions on trade • Iraqi people have suffered from these wars
IRAQ ATTACK II • During the 1990’s Iraq refused abide with the agreements that ended the 1st Gulf war. • Presidents Clinton and Bush (W) repeatedly warned Saddam Hussein • The world knew that Saddam had Weapons of Mass Destruction…since he repeatedly used them over the years • The U. S. went with a collation force (many countries) and took Saddam out of power. • The Collation forces are helping to set up a democratic government in Iraq