POLIO. By Joe Renzi. Index. 1 Home 2 Index 3 Polio History 4 Causes of Polio 5 How the Polio Virus Attacks 6 Three Types of Polio: Type I Spinal Polio 7 Three Types of Polio: Type II Bulbar Polio 8 Three Types of Polio: Type III Bulbospinal Polio 9 Diagnosing Polio
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POLIO By Joe Renzi
Index 1 Home 2 Index 3 Polio History 4 Causes of Polio 5 How the Polio Virus Attacks 6 Three Types of Polio: Type I Spinal Polio 7 Three Types of Polio: Type II Bulbar Polio 8 Three Types of Polio: Type III Bulbospinal Polio 9 Diagnosing Polio 10 Treatment and Therapies 11 Treatment and Therapy Stories 12 Psychological scars 13 Scientific Developments Leading to the Polio Vaccine Part 1 14 Scientific Developments Leading to the Polio Vaccine Part 2 15 Scientific Developments Leading to the Polio Vaccine Part 3 16 Scientific Developments Leading to the Polio Vaccine Part 4 17 Salk Vaccine 18 Sabin Vaccine 19 Proof that the Vaccine Works 20 Polio Still Is Not Eradicated 21 World Map of Current Polio Cases 22 Famous People Who had or have Polio 23 Everyday Survival Stories 24 22 Post Polio Syndrome 25 Polio Today 26 Works Cited
Polio History - plagued humans with paralysis and death for thousands of years - effects of this disease are depicted on ancient Egyptian stones - engravings and many references to polio appear in the Bible - until mid-19th century affected limited number of people in a few areas. - in 1840’s increased in developing, populous countries like the U.S. - President Roosevelt created National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) - NFIP sponsored the March of Dimes - 1952 number of cases topped out at 57,879 in U.S. alone (Silverstein 39) 1956 Detroit Auto Show visitors attached donation dimes to March of Dimes automobile.
Causes of Polio Polio is caused by... - by indirect contact with infected mucus or phlegm or contaminated food and water - by a contagious enterovirus that damages or destroys the central nervous system - improvements in sanitation when people were no longer exposed to low levels of viruses and bacteria to build their own antibodies - the oral vaccine, in rare cases, may cause polio in persons who are vaccinated
How the Polio Virus Attacks - virus enters through the nose or mouth - once virus enters the body, it multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract - it is then absorbed and spread through the blood lymph system - it attacks nerve cells in brain and spinal cord, which control the muscles - infections vary in severity from mild illness to partial or complete paralysis - extent of the disability depends which of the three strains and the strength of the virus - once the body has had the virus, it is immune, but only to that one strain
Three Types of Polio: Type I Spinal Polio - most common form of paralytic poliomyelitis - causes paralysis in the arms or legs of the victim - legs are affected more often than the arms - death is not very common - results from viral invasion in motor neurons of the anterior horn cells or the gray matter in the spinal column - disrupts the anterior horn cells which are responsible for relaying messages from the brain, via the spinal cord, to the motor nerve which communicates with the muscle
Three Types of Polio: Type II Bulbar Polio - produces symptoms like encephalitis - causes patients to have breathing, speaking, and swallowing difficulties - the bulbar region is a white matter pathway that connects the brain stem to the cerebral cortex - weakened cranial nerves result when the bulbar region is destroyed by the polio virus - dangerous form of polio causes victims to suffocate from secretions that collect in the throat and block the airway.
Three Types of Polio: Type III Bulbospinal Polio - affects the phrenic nerve which pushes the diaphragm to inflate the lungs and controls muscles needed for swallowing - virus attacks the upper part of the cervical spinal cord causing paralysis of the diaphragm to occur - victims of bulbospinal polio find it hard to breathe without a respirator - bulbospinal polio is fatal to 50 percent of the victims Eleven-year-old Robert Blackburn of Clarkston, shown in 1953with grandmother Mrs. Alfred Dunckel and mother Dorothy Blackburn, gets breathing assistance from an iron lung at Children's Hospital in Farmington.
Diagnosis - incubation period of 4 to 35 days - early symptoms include fatigue, headache, fever, vomiting, constipation, stiff neck, diarrhea, and pain in the extremities - as key nerve cells stop sending and receiving messages, the muscles can no longer contract and move body parts - cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is analyzed to measure proteins, sugar (glucose), and other chemicals - CSF is the the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord - presence of polio antibodies is tested in the blood, as well as, throat or stool cultures
- main goal for this incurable virus is to control the symptoms with antibiotics, pain medication, and physical therapy - over the years, scientific advancements changed treatment procedures - 1789, Michael Underwood was the first to use braces and corrective shoes - iron lung was built by Phillip Drinker in 1929 - President Roosevelt tried electric currents, UV lights, massages, and mineral baths - 1930’s, Sister Elizabeth Kenney from Australia used hot blankets and massage therapy instead of traditional immobilization
Treatment and Therapy Stories “The massages were extremely painful. It was a little bit like taking your thumb and bending it back to your elbow. To this day I’m not interested in getting a massage" (Byrne) quotes Alan Alda, a polio survivor. Interview with a Michigan polio survivor, "I contracted polio as a 13 month old boy in August 1940 while I was living in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. I was placed in an iron lung for a few weeks and remained in the hospital until June 1941. The use of hot packs on polio patients did not become standard treatment until about 1944, therefore I did not receive that type of treatment" (Interview).
Psychological Scars - polio victims battled psychological scars - children felt abandoned after parents left them in hospital wards - Carol Boyer came down with polio when she was three years old in 1952. She remembers, "it was awful being left alone without my mom. I just cried and cried and cried." (Sherrow 21). - others felt useless - Mary Korstjens was a young mother who questioned whether she could still be a wife and mother. "She had always been so active, so capable. Now she felt so useless." (Korstjens 47).
Scientific Discoveries Leading to the Polio Vaccine – Part 1 - development of the polio vaccines was result of many scientific discoveries - 1675 Antonie van Leewenhoek was the first to identified moving creatures in water - 1770 Lazzaro Spallazami further studied living minute organisms and proved that no new organisms grew in sealed containers - 1796 smallpox was identified, leading to inoculation therapy by Dr. Edward Jenner van Leewenhoek Dr. Jenner
Scientific Discoveries Leading to the Polio Vaccine – Part 2 - 1840 Dr. Jacob von Heine - first used the term infantile paralysis - wrote first detailed description of polio based on his studies of patients - identified the spinal cord as the site of involvement - realized that motor nerves in spinal cord are attacked because of an absence of brain damage - 1870 Jean-Martin Charcot discovered damaged nerve cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord von Heine Chacot
Scientific Discoveries Leading to the Polio Vaccine – Part 3 - Robert Koch proved that microorganisms caused specific diseases and invented a method for culturing microorganisms. - 1867 Louis Pasteur developed a heating process that destroyed unwanted organisms - Pasteur proved germs could be attenuated or weakened producing an immunity to a disease - 1890 Martinus Beijerinck discovered viruses - 1908 polio was first identified as a virus and not a bacterial disease by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper
Scientific Discoveries Leading to the Polio Vaccine – Part 4 - 1931 William J. Elford found polio virus was a solid particle and not a fluid particle as Beijerinck had claimed - 1931 Sir Macfarlane Burnet and Dame MacNamara identified the three strains of polio - 1931 Dr. Ernest Goodpasture with Alice Woodruff found a way to grow viruses in chicken eggs - 1935 Wendell Stanley discovered that viruses need a live cell to duplicate themselves - 1948 John Franklin Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins invented a method for growing polio virus on monkey kidney tissue.
Salk Vaccine - 1942 Dr. Jonas Salk began developing a polio vaccine based on flu vaccine - used viruses from three different sources and strains - Type I from a monkey named Brunhilde - Type II came from Egyptian soldiers in World War II - Type III virus was taken from a boy named James Sarkett - cooked the virus with formaldehyde to kill the virus - 1953 tested vaccine on children who already had polio to measure antibodies - 1954 completed work on vaccine, made from killed polio viruses - 1954 vaccine tested on people without polio With University of Michigan overseeing the trial - April 12 ,1955 vaccine proved to be over 90% effective (Medline) Kurt Achenbach, 7, a first-grader at Baker School in 1954, bucks up his courage as he gets a shot from Dr. Frank Prather. Young Kurt was one of 1.8 million "polio pioneers" who volunteered to test the Salk vaccine
Sabin Vaccine - Albert Sabin created the first oral vaccine in the late 1950’s - used living viruses that were weakened so that they could not cause disease - 1958-1960 worldwide large scale field test was conducted with Sabin vaccine - 1960 vaccine was licensed in the United States - Sabin Sunday, April 24,1960, over 200,000 people were vaccinated in one day - 1963 TOPV- trivalent oral polio vaccine licensed and replaced Salk’s injectable vaccine.
Proof That The Vaccine Works - proof polio was defeated is in the numbers - 1958 over 42,000 cases of polio reported (Silverstein 47) - 1960 number dropped to 3,190 (Silverstein, 47) - 1961 number declined further to 1,312 cases (Silverstein, 47) - 1962 number of new cases were at 910 (Silverstein, 47)
Polio Still Is Not Eradicated - polio can still make a comeback - if routine vaccinations are stopped, unprotected people could still contract polio - 1979 there were 16 new cases among Amish in United States and Canada who had not been vaccinated - April 13, 2010 globally there were 64 new cases of polio in epidemic countries, where people are not inoculated - At this point, humans are winning the war against polio, but the battle to eradicate polio is not over
Famous People Who Have or Had Polio President Franklin D. Roosevelt contracted Polio in 1921. He tried various treatments like electric currents, U.V. lights, and mineral baths. He used the power of the Presidency to fight polio by creating the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Jack Nicklaus is a Pro Golfer who had polio as a child. Alan Alda endured Sister Elizabeth Kenny's treatment of hot blankets and massages as a seven year old. Wilma Rudolph won three gold medals in the 1960's Olympics for running in track and field. Mia Farrow was a polio survivor that started Polio Immunization Day. Artist Frida Kahlo was had one leg shorter and weaker than the other as a result of polio. Musician David Sanborn played the saxophone as a treatment to strengthen his weak chest muscles
Everyday Survival Stories - polio survivors are true survivors - Sandi Hall pointed out that as a polio survivor, "I learned to try harder, strive more, give 200% of myself and show people that just because I had polio didn't mean that I was any less a person" (Sherrow 40) - my Michigan polio survivor had multiple surgeries growing up to strengthen his arms and legs. He told me that, "During the time I was growing up all polio survivors were encouraged to do everything we could and not to feel sorry for ourselves. As a group polio, survivors are more highly educated than others in our age group. I graduated from collage with a degree in Elementary Education and a Masters Degree in Educational Leadership. I taught in the public schools for 42 years and retired in 2003."
Post Polio Syndrome - Today there are about 1.5 million polio survivors - in the past few years, post polio patients are getting diagnosed with post-polio muscular atrophy (PPMA) - muscles that were previously affected by polio infection, as well as, muscles that were unaffected become weak and may atrophy (shrink) - PPMA is not a reinfection of the polio virus or a reactivation of the virus - doctors hypothesis that polio survivors are prone to acceleration aging process - normally, humans experience a decrease in the number of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord as they age causing muscle weakness but polio survivors have cells that are taking on extra roles for damaged cells which could be shortening the life span of the remaining cells
Polio Today - Organizations such as the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the CDC, the United Nations Children's Fund, Rotary International, and the World Health Organization are working to together to get eradicate polio - efforts are hampered by political, religious, and societal obstacles in third world countries - Bill Gates has donated over $700 million dollars to the efforts of eradicating polio - May 2010 – Organizations plans to revamp the strategy of polio eradication - continue vaccinations into disease-infested, poor areas - also strengthen the overall health system in the area - change global health strategy and fight against other diseases
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