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CHAPTER 5 HUMAN POPULATIONS ONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UP A country faces the outcomes of radical population control. 5. ONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UP A country faces the outcomes of radical population control.

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CHAPTER 5HUMAN POPULATIONSONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UPA country faces the outcomes of radical population control
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ONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UPA country faces the outcomes of radical population control

With 7 billion people on Earth, we must use strategies to reduce the birth rate, especially in developing countries. The challenge in highly developed nations is to reduce consumption to better reflect finite resources.

Main Concept

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ONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UPA country faces the outcomes of radical population control

  • At the end of this unit you will know:
  • Why both cultural and demographic factors influence population growth or reduction in the developing and developed world
  • Describe demographic transition from the 1800s to the present

Learning Outcomes

slide4

Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

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Dramatic growth occurred twice in history—10,000 years ago with the agricultural revolution and throughout the Industrial Revolution up until today.

Changes in sanitation, health care, vaccinations, clean water, and nutrition led to increased life expectancy, decreased infant mortality, and maintained crude birth rate.

Populations soared!

Growth got political in China as famine claimed 30 million lives and consumer goods were rationed.

TERMS TO KNOW:

Growth rate

Life expectancy

Crude death rate

Crude birth rate

Population density

Overpopulation

Population momentum

slide5

Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

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The English priest Thomas Malthus said that too many mouths to feed but not enough food would result in disease, famine, and war.

In the late 1970s, China experienced population momentum, meaning that there was already a large population, two-thirds of which was under age 30.

Even with two children per couple, the numbers were beyond what could be managed.

In 1979, China instituted a mandatory policy that there could only be one child per family without loss of government benefits and a very high fine.

The Chinese policy was promoted by promising improved quality of life for all.

slide6

Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

5

The English priest Thomas Malthussaid that too many mouths to feed but not enough food would result in disease, famine, and war.

In the late 1970s, China experienced population momentum, meaning that there was already a large population, two-thirds of which was under age 30.

Even with two children per couple, the numbers were beyond what could be managed.

In 1979, China instituted a mandatory policy that there could only be one child per family without loss of government benefits and a very high fine.

The Chinese policy was promoted by promising improved quality of life for all.

slide7

Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

5

The English priest Thomas Malthussaid that too many mouths to feed but not enough food would result in disease, famine, and war.

In the late 1970s, China experienced population momentum, meaning that there was already a large population, two-thirds of which was under age 30.

Even with two children per couple, the numbers were beyond what could be managed.

In 1979, China instituted a mandatory policy that there could only be one child per family without loss of government benefits and a very high fine.

The Chinese policy was promoted by promising improved quality of life for all.

slide8

Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

5

Population density measures people occupying a certain land area.

China and the United States have about the same land area, but China has a much higher population and greater population density.

Bangladesh has among the highest densities in the world.

The most densely populated areas in the world tend to be in coastal areas or close to major waterways.

About 90% of the people on Earth live on 10% of the surface area, and most are north of the equator.

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Human populations grew slowly at first then at a much faster rate in recent years

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Population density measures people occupying a certain land area.

China and the United States have about the same land area, but China has a much higher population and greater population density.

Bangladesh has among the highest densities in the world.

The most densely populated areas in the world tend to be in coastal areas or close to major waterways.

About 90% of the people on Earth live on 10% of the surface area, and most are north of the equator.

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Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

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TERMS TO KNOW:

Infant mortality rate

Total fertility rate (TFR)

Demographic factors

Developed country

Developing country

Chinese culture was built around large, extended families shaped by pronatalist pressures.

Work the family farm, tend to household chores, care for aging parents…

Predictors for fertility – Number of children desired

Agrarian societies have high pronatalist pressures.

Large family for prestige and status

High infant mortality and desire to have survivors

China’s TFR until the 1970s was 5-6.

A poster promoting China’s one-child policy

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Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

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Consequences of China’s one-child policy:

Speculation of enforcers carrying out tens of millions of sterilizations and abortions, many by force, but no way to confirm incidence of accusation.

Testimony of babies killed at very late gestation or upon birth—quotas for abortions?

Officials argue for improvement of women’s access to healthcare and birth control and reduced incidence of death and injury with birth.

Sterilization and IUDs account for as much as 90% of contraception in China—usually without choice. 2011 fertility down to 1.54 TFR—400 million births prevented—“Little Emperor” society to change society and the world?

A poster promoting China’s one-child policy

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Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

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Successful “late, few, long” campaign in China cut total fertility rate (TFR) from 5.9 to 2.9. From 3 to 1? Much more difficult. No siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles…

Demographic factors – Health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences are very different from other developed and developing countries.

Most of the world’s population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth in in developed nations.

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Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

5

Successful “late, few, long” campaign in China cut total fertility rate (TFR) from 5.9 to 2.9. From 3 to 1? Much more difficult. No siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles…

Demographic factors – Health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences are very different from other developed and developing countries.

Most of the world’s population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth in in developed nations.

slide14

Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

5

Successful “late, few, long” campaign in China cut total fertility rate (TFR) from 5.9 to 2.9. From 3 to 1? Much more difficult. No siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles…

Demographic factors – Health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences are very different from other developed and developing countries.

Most of the world’s population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth in in developed nations.

slide15

Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

5

Successful “late, few, long” campaign in China cut total fertility rate (TFR) from 5.9 to 2.9. From 3 to 1? Much more difficult No siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles…

Demographic factors – Health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences are very different from other developed and developing countries.

Most of the world’s population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth in in developed nations.

slide16

Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

5

Successful “late, few, long” campaign in China cut total fertility rate (TFR) from 5.9 to 2.9. From 3 to 1? Much more difficult. No siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles…

Demographic factors – Health, education, economic conditions, and cultural influences are very different from other developed and developing countries.

Most of the world’s population growth occurs in the developing nations, but most wealth in in developed nations.

slide17

Fertility rates are affected by a variety of factors

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Higher death rate in developed nations due to aging population but higher infant mortality rates in developing nations reveal the differences in quality of life and health care.

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Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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TERMS TO KNOW:

Demographic transition

Zero population growth

Replacement fertility rate

Smaller families in China may have been the result of social change more than policy. More young people move to the city, and the need for help on the farm is no longer a pronatal stressor.

Demographic transition holds that, as a country’s economy changes from preindustrial to postindustrial, low birth and death rates replace high birth and death rates.

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Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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TERMS TO KNOW:

Demographic transition

Zero population growth

Replacement fertility rate

Smaller families in China may have been the result of social change more than policy. More young people move to the city, and the need for help on the farm is no longer a pronatal stressor.

Demographic transition holds that, as a country’s economy changes from preindustrial to postindustrial, low birth and death rates replace high birth and death rates.

slide20

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

5

TERMS TO KNOW:

Demographic transition

Zero population growth

Replacement fertility rate

Smaller families in China may have been the result of social change more than policy. More young people move to the city, and the need for help on the farm is no longer a pronatal stressor.

Demographic transition holds that, as a country’s economy changes from preindustrial to postindustrial, low birth and death rates replace high birth and death rates.

slide21

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

5

TERMS TO KNOW:

Demographic transition

Zero population growth

Replacement fertility rate

Smaller families in China may have been the result of social change more than policy. More young people move to the city and the need for help on the farm is no longer a pronatal stressor.

Demographic transition holds that, as a country’s economy changes from preindustrial to postindustrial, low birth and death rates replace high birth and death rates.

slide22

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

5

As women have more opportunities and access to health care and education, they want fewer children.

Zero population growth (ZPG) occurs when the number or people being born is equal to the number dying—replacement fertility rate.

slide23

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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Programs that address the needs of a population and work within cultural and religious traditions are the most successful for reducing pronatal pressures. First and foremost, social justice issues associated with overpopulation must be resolved.

slide28

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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The fastest growing regions are those with a youthful or very young population.

slide29

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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Age structure diagrams show the distribution of males and females of a population by age class. The width of a bar shows the percentage of the total population in each gender age class.

The more young people in a population, the more population momentum it has.

If more people are in their reproductive years, birth rates will be high, except as influenced by income—birth rates are lower as incomes increase.

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Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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The population pyramid for Niger indicates the potential for rapid growth since the majority of the population is under age 30—high population momentum.

slide31

Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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China’s population pyramid indicates a population growing more slowly with smaller pre-reproductive and reproductive cohorts. In both China and India (not shown), there is an obvious skew toward males.

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Factors that decrease the death rate can also decrease overall population growth rates

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Japan has a population with a fairly even distribution of age classes. This is an example of a stable population with a possibility of decreasing slowly as deaths start to outnumber births.

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The age and gender composition of a population affects its potential for growth

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Historically, sons were so valued that a second son might be sent to live with a relative who had no sons.

TERMS TO KNOW:

Age structure

Sex ratio

Age structure diagram

An upcoming problem is the “4-2-1 conundrum.”

Since the one-child policies began 30 years ago, the next stage for this group of only-children settling into adulthood is responsibility for elder care—two aging parents and four grandparents. There are no nieces, nephews, or other family members to call on, and China does not have an extensive pension program.

slide34

Carrying capacity: is zero population growth enough?

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We are increasing both in numbers and in resource use. At our current rate of consumption, human population has possibly already surpassed Earth’s long-term carrying capacity.

slide35

What awaits China’s generation of Little Emperors?

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TERMS TO KNOW:

Gendercide

Immigration

Emigration

Carrying capacity

How will China adjust to fewer workers, taxpayers, and innovators?

As China becomes a small-family culture, what other changes might be expected? With demographic transition, more urban women want fewer children.

slide36

PERSONAL CHOICES THAT HELP

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  • No child labor facilities
  • Downtown revitalization
  • Community partnerships
slide40

EVALUATING NEW INFORMATION

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Foundation for International Community Assistance (FINCA) –

http://www.finca.org