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Writing a research report in APA-style. Vesalius College SOC-203. Scientific research. Descriptive. Experimental. Secundary sources Natural observation Case studies Correlational studies Ex Post Facto research Survey Participant observation. Cause and effect relations through

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Writing a research report in APA-style


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scientific research
Scientific research

Descriptive

Experimental

Secundary sources

Natural observation

Case studies

Correlational studies

Ex Post Facto research

Survey

Participant observation

Cause and effect relations through

Controlled experiments

main features of the scientific method
Main features of the scientific method
  • Control
    • External (intermediating) variables are excluded OR kept constant in order to understand causes ofobservations
  • Operational definitions
    • Terms defined by operations required to measure them
    • improves communication, minimal ambiguity
  • Replication
    • Reliability of results: does replication lead to the same results? (inter-group, inter-subject, intra-subject, …)
operational definitions
Not-operational

Hunger

Good salesman

Fear

Operational

8h without food

Sells a lot, provides client with correct information, helpful, …

Answers to fear questionnaire, Galvanic Skin Response, Amount of droppings in rats

Operational definitions

Problem is established in verbal concepts (not-operational), then operationalised. Conclusions are stated in verbal concepts

goals of science
Goals of science

DESCRIBE and EXPLAIN phenomena and so be able to PREDICT and CONTROL them

  • DESCRIBE (ex Piaget, Freud)
  • EXPLAIN (antecedents and causes)
  • PREDICT (ex “weather”, “succeeding in college”)
  • CONTROL (trigger wanted phenomena by manipulation of causes)
scientific method
Scientific method

research is a stepwise process

  • Problem identification – Hypothesis formation
  • Make research problem “researchable”
  • Experimental design

control / measurement of all relevant variables

  • Execution of experiment

participants, instructions, staff, debriefing, data

  • Hypothesis testing

“suitable” data-analyse, interpretation of results

  • Communication of results

scientific publication

research process and research report

Abstract

Title

Appendix

References

Research process and research report

Research process

Hypothesis

Design

Experiment

Testing

Reporting

Problem definition

Approach to problem

Research design

Field work

Data preparation & Analysis

Report preparation & Presentation

Research report

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion

figure 19 3 the report preparation presentation process
Figure 19.3 The Report Preparation & Presentation Process

Figure 19.3 The Report Preparation and Presentation Process

Problem Definition, Approach, Research Design, and Field Work

Data Analysis

Interpretation, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Report Preparation

Oral Presentation

Reading of the Report by the Client

Research Follow-up

a report in apa style
A report in APA-style
  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Body (introduction, method, results, conclusion)
  • References
  • Tables and Pictures
  • Extras: content / index, appendix, …
apa formatted references
APA-formatted references
  • Journal articles
    • Roy, A. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Child and Family Studies, 141, 171-177.
  • Book
    • Struck, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
  • Web page, no author, no date
    • GVU’s 8th WWW user suvey. (n.d.) Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/
apa formatted figure
APA-formatted figure

Figure Caption

Figure 1. JPEG image of child and bipolar adjectives rating scale.

Please rate the child [Laurie, Larry, no name] on each of the following items, placing a mark in

the space nearest the adjective you feel best describes the child.

firm:__:__:__:__:__:soft

big:__:__:__:__:__:little

strong:__:__:__:__:__:weak

hardy:__:__:__:__:__:delicate

well-coordinated:__:__:__:__:__:awkward

beautiful:__:__:__:__:__:plain

figure 19 4 pie chart of total hewlett packard sales
Figure 19.4 Pie Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales

Figure 19.4 Pie Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales

Other 3%

IT Services 14%

Imaging and Printing Systems 41%

Computing Systems 42%

figure 19 5 line chart of total hewlett packard sales
Figure 19.5 Line Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales

Figure 19.5 Line Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales

Billions of Dollars

figure 19 6 a pictograph of hewlett packard sales
Figure 19.6 A Pictograph of Hewlett Packard Sales

Figure 19.6 A Pictograph of Hewlett Packard Sales

figure 19 7 histogram of hewlett packard s sales
Figure 19.7 Histogram of Hewlett Packard’s Sales

Figure 19.7 Histogram of Hewlett Packard’s Sales

Figure 19.7 Histogram of Hewlett Packard’s Sales

60

50

40

30

Billions of Dollars

Billions of Dollars

20

10

0

1999

1996

1997

1998

2000

information links
Information & LINKS
  • Publication manual of the APA
    • American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. - 5th ed. - Washington (D.C.) : APA

439 p. : ill. ISBN 1-55798-790-4VUB library: Centrale Bibliotheek: 159.9 B APA 2001

  • Essentials
    • http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=796
  • Summary of Publication Manual
    • http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html
  • General information
    • http://www.apastyle.org
  • Q&A
    • http://webster.commnet.edu/apa/apa_index.htm
  • Examples for references
    • http://www.crk.umn.edu/library/links/apa5th.htm
    • http://www.lib.usm.edu/~instruct/guides/apa.html