University of Central Arkansas Trista Davis Jennifer Landowski Justin Rasnick Joseph Hawkins Putting the P ieces Together The Impact of Information Technology on Student Affairs Information Technology
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Computers called mainframes fill entire rooms.
The invention of microprocessor chips dramatically reduces the size of computers.
Newly developed programming changes how information is sent across networks, creating the internet as we know it.
All the information for this timeline was taken from the following websites:
U.S. Census Bereau
Ian Peter's History of the Internet
The Internet Society
Computers connected together across phone lines using modems, creating the first network.
61.8% of American households have computers and 54.7% of households have internet access.
(Davis, Janus, Cheeseman Day,2003)
More than 100,000 computers in U.S. schools.
The Beloit Mindset List
“Each August for the past decade, as faculty prepare for the academic year, Beloit College in Wisconsin has released the Beloit College Mindset List. Its 70 items provide a look at the cultural touchstones that have shaped the lives of today’s first-year students, most of them born in 1989.”
The Millennial Generation
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This area has gone from being completely paper-based to primarily technology based. Not only can students apply online to schools and research the thousands of schools out there, but they can also receive virtual tours of the school they want to attend.
Safety and Security
Texas Christian University in Fort Worth believes it will become the first in Texas to move to an entirely electronic application process.
“A couple of years ago, I predicted that within five years we’d be all-electronic; it arrived a bit earlier than I expected. Eighty-three percent of TCU’s applications for enrollment this past year were submitted over the internet. The more compelling figure was the 50,000 plus applications sent via email and only 1 percent returned completed via mail.”
- Raymond Brown, Dean of Admissions at TCU
Students Laptop Mandates: Creating the Competitive Campus says: “Campuses that offer incoming students laptop computers have a recruitment and retention edge. Laptop mandates help universities create a completive, attractive environment, and therefore help recruit and retain students; this is evidence by increases in enrollment and student retention in colleges and universities that have such programs.”
“Most schools wouldn’t consider using a picture of a campus restroom on an admissions brochure paired with a direct quote from a current student saying, ‘There’s no freakin’ way in JOHN!’ But in a sense, that’s the direction which recruiting appears to be heading as more colleges turn to student-written blogs to give prospective students and their parents a glimpse of life in college. Blogs create a constant contact stream between a school and a potential student over a long period of time. As a result, schools using blogs already have a leg up on competing colleges that are only using traditional marketing efforts.”
-Ball State University
“Instant Messenger is changing how students write, creating much shorter attention spans. The web has also changed application patterns. Students are doing 50-90% of their college research online. They’re going to the website and taking our virtual tour; it’s one of the key elements of our site. Forty percent of our applications are coming online. Only a couple of years ago that number was about 10-15%.”
IM Recruitment-Binghamton University
“Instant messaging has become a quick and easy forum for students to ask questions and get answers immediately. Rather than being a fad, it allows us to share information and build the kind of relationship that we both can benefit from. We get to know them and vice versa. It’s a real win-win.”
“There are 8-10 telecounselors to work with students after office hours Monday-Thursday to call, email, and instant chat with prospective students. Around 430 schools including: Iowa State, University of Alabama, Southwest Minnesota State, and Harvard University have signed up for the Boston-based Chat University online services to recruit students.”
“Having access to wealth of knowledge means you won’t waste your time applying for a role to which you are not suited.” - Unknown
Recruitment is key for growth in any organization. It is how one goes about recruiting that changes things. Technology has taken over the recruitment process and will continue to grow. From newspapers to websites, from snail mail to email, from telephone to instant messaging, change is inevitable. As student affairs professionals we need to be sure to be in the constant know of what is changing and taking place in our world. Before we know it, instant messaging will be a thing of the past and something else will take its place.
“I think it's fair to say that personal computers have become the most empowering tool we've ever created. They're tools of communication, they're tools of creativity, and they can be shaped by their user.”
- Bill Gates
The degree to which a product is accessible by as many people as possible and is strongly related to Universal Design, making things accessible to all people.
In the past people who were challenged in these certain areas did not have the proper access they do today. People in wheelchairs weren’t able to enter a building without having someone hold open the door for them. People who were blind or had visual problems weren’t able to read their text books on their own. Even students who lived in the residence halls didn’t have the proper access needed to get through the day.
Today is a new day. Huge developments within technology benefit not only people with disabilities but everyone else. We have ramps for wheelchair access, electric door openers, and tapped text and CCTV (closed caption television) that help students who struggle with vision to succeed in reading their books.
Safety and Security
An approach to the design of all products and environments to be usable by everyone, to the greatest extent possible, regardless of age, ability, or situation. It serves people who are young or old, with excellent or limited abilities, in ideal or difficult circumstances. Universal Design benefits everyone by accommodating limitations.
The Seven Principles of Universal Design
Universal Design is a concept that has emerged from the architectural field and is now being applied in other areas. The term “Universal Design” was defined by the team of architects, environmental researchers, engineers and product designers who are credited with its origin. They define Universal Design as “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” This same team of professionals developed a set of seven principles which guide designers in the development of products and environments to maximize usability and accessibility.
The accommodation model of disability services is currently the most prevalent model in the postsecondary setting. This realization, for many disability service providers, results in a recognition that a change must occur in the DSS office before it can occur across the campus. One way to approach this change is to engage in a strategic planning process.
Disability Support Services at the University of Central Arkansas (UCA)
“The goal of DSS is to maximize each student's educational potential while helping him or her develop and maintain independence. Our philosophy is one that encourages self-awareness, self-determination, self-advocacy and independence in a comprehensively accessible environment. While complying with the letter of the law, DSS also embraces the spirit by providing services to all students with permanent or temporary disabilities to ensure that all University programs and activities are accessible. The student's responsibility is to become informed about and to make use of the resources and services that are available.”
–University of Central Arkansas
“DSS had to evolve with our student population at UCA. The computer technology needs of students in general have grown substantially within the past 10-15 years, as has the assistive technology needs of students with disabilities. When I arrived here in 2000, we had already purchased our first version of Kuzweil 3000, Dragon Dictate, the Braille printer, and an older model CCTV. Most of the technology that DSS provides is in the library room 222, our assistive technology lab. Decentralized access to assistive technology- Students having access to needed software within our university's general use computer labs, would be a logical next step in our department.” – Crystal Hill, Director of DSS
What UDL represents:
Universal Design goes hand in hand with technology because computer-based materials are the most practical way to provide the needed flexibility. Our goal is to make software with multiple options to support mathematical problem description and problem solving.
Safety and Security
Who is using Facebook?
64,000,000 active users.
250,000 new registrations a day since January 2007.
A little under half of Facebook users are in college.
Facebook maintains 85% of the 4-year university market share.Social Networks
GroupWise provides a power that allows users to synchronize information between nearly any mobile device and their Novell GroupWise accounts.
This latest technology innovation opens the door to allow total freedom. GroupWise allows users unrestricted, protected access to email, appointments, contacts, tasks and notes from their personal handheld portable information device.
Another dynamic aspect of GroupWise is their “push” technology. The push technology instantly pushes data from the GroupWise Mobile Server to the user’s mobile device as soon as it arrives in the user’s inbox via WiFi or another internet carrier of the users choice.
GroupWise has also allowed for documents to be seen in their original format. Word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations can be viewed from your portable device without any formatting issues.
What does this mean for universities?
Intranets enhance communication between employees, and provide a common knowledge base and storage area for everyone in your business. They also provide easy access to university data, systems and email from their individual desktops.
What is an intranet?
An intranet is a private website that uses the same underlying structure and network protocols as the internet and is protected from unauthorized users by a firewall.
What does this mean for everyone?
Because intranets are secure and easily accessible through the internet, workers and students can access these intranets from almost anywhere. What this means is that faculty, administration, and students can access the information they need whenever they are on a trip, sick at home, at another university, and the list can go on and on. Due to portable devices, this day and age anyone can access their university’s intranet from literally anywhere in the world and work as if they are sitting at their own desk.
Universities across the nation are using email. Even though email has been around for a very long time the application has changed over the decades.
“Over the past decade, progress in Portable Information Devices (PIDs) has revolutionized telecommunications, information engineering, and entertainment systems. PIDs have become an essential part of everyday life and business. They make it possible to have vastly enhanced lifestyles - from basics such as reading, note taking, or listening to music, to crunching numbers, watching videos, and following news and sports events while on the go. Today's PIDs include cellular phones, personal digital assistants, medical devices, intelligent clothing, and iPods. Some devices provide built-in organizers for shopping lists, scheduling and appointments, phone numbers, address books, customer contacts, even games and video display.”
In 1981 the world saw the first portable device, the Osborne 1. It cost $1,795 and weighed around 25 pounds. The purchasing power of $1,795 during 1982 was the equivalent of $4,045.40. However, the Osborne 1 came with $1,500 of free software installed. It had a five inch monitor and had 64kb of memory and two 91kb drives. It also had a 4 Mhz processor and you could purchase an internal battery pack so that it would not have to be plugged in to work.
Portable devices today are far more advanced. The newly released Apple Air costs $1,800, and it comes stock with 2 GB of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive, and a 1.6 GHz processor.
The PEP (Palm Education Pioneers) teachers concluded that the main benefits to the student were increased time using the technology, increased student motivation, increased collaboration and communications, and benefits from having a portable and accessible personal learning tool. Likewise, 67% of student teachers felt that the PDAs increased student motivation and interest, 71% felt that they increased the ability to collaborate and communicate, and 80% of the student teachers increased their productivity by having a portable and accessible learning tool.
An entrance, entry point, or means of entry
“At the most basic level, portals gather a variety of useful information resources into a single, ‘one stop’ Web page, helping the user to avoid being overwhelmed…”(Looney & Lyman, 2000)
Potential Issues: The system must be able to differentiate between a John Doe and a Dr. John Doe who has access to sensitive material. It is very difficult to organize an infrastructure and institutional information and services to perform this way. Campus specialists are likely to be displaced. In order to truly make web-based services user friendly and compatible with self-services and role-based ideals, users cannot have multiple user IDs and passwords. Institutional policies will be stretched into new shapes and configurations by these technologies and ethical, legal, and policy constraints concerning student information will be called into question.
Why it’s important: Throughout our history, colleges and universities have described themselves as communities of scholars. Creative, web-sophisticated, commercial, and academic organizations are harnessing the evolving technologies and new organizing principles to create powerful and compelling communities. When the communities are created they reinforce stakeholder loyalties in ways our traditional campuses do.
Technology has been used to address many campus safety and security problems while at the same time creating new vulnerabilities.
Safety and Security
Text Messaging and Email Alert Systems
“Security is, I would say, our top priority because of all the exciting things you will be able to do with computers. If we don't solve these security problems, then people will hold back. Businesses will be afraid to put their critical information on it because it will be exposed.”
- Bill Gates
Given the percentage of growth, the reality is that most of us will become the victim of identity theft sometime in our lives, if not multiple times.
- Linda Goldman-Foley, Executive Director
Identity Theft Resource Center
College students are uniquely vulnerable to identity theft because of the public availability of their personal information, their easy access to credit, and their lack of attention to credit issues.
University of Minnesota Parent Program Connection
Safety and Security
“Technology works best when it is solving a problem that people have come up against.”
- Robert Zemsky, Learning Alliance for Higher Education
“Technology is the fuel on which distance education runs and is a primary focal point in virtually all distance education professional organizations and publications.” (Dare, Zapata, Thomas 2005)
“Distance learning can help solve two fundamental problems: Time and Space.”
- Gene Maeroff, Hechinger Institute on Education and the Media, Columbia University
(Dare, Zapata, Thomas 2005)
Distance learners are a segment of the student population that can no longer be ignored by the student affairs profession. Originally, distance learners were primarily older and limited by family obligations, but as technology increases, so will the population of traditional demographic students earning degrees via distance learning.
“E-learning will never, and should never, be the dominate method of educating students, but it will be a fixed part of the delivery system of higher education.” -Gene Maeroff
Safety and Security
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