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The Victorian Translators of Verne. * Anne Toppan Wilbur (1817-1864) * Jehiel Keeler Hoyt (1820-1895) William Lackland (pseud.) Lewis Page Mercier (1820-1875); Eleanor E. King (1838-?) Ellen Elizabeth Frewer (1848 - 1901+) * Nancy Regina Emily Meugens (1844-1933)

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Victorian Translators



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*Anne Toppan Wilbur (1817-1864)

*Jehiel Keeler Hoyt (1820-1895)

William Lackland (pseud.)

Lewis Page Mercier (1820-1875); Eleanor E. King (1838-?)

Ellen Elizabeth Frewer (1848 - 1901+)

*Nancy Regina Emily Meugens (1844-1933)

George Makepeace Towle (1841-1893)

*Stephen W. White; William Struthers

*Frederick Amadeus Malleson (1819-1897)

Henry Frith (1840—1910)

*Thomas H. Linklater (1849-??)

*Agnes Kinloch Kingston (1824-1913)

Wiliam Henry Giles Kingston (1814-1880)

Agnes Dundas Kingston (1856 - 1886)

*Edward Roth

*Emma Garrison Jones (1833 - 1898)

Grace Virginia Lord (?? - 1885)

William John Gordon (?? - ??)

Mary de Hauteville

James Cotterell

*Jeremiah C. Curtin (1830—1913)

George W. Hanna

Laura E. Kendall

Alphonse E. Estoclet (1850? - 1920?)

*Frances Sarah Johnston (1830-1908) (Mrs. Cashel-Hoey)

*Hope Cranstoun Metcalfe (1866 - 1939)

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Anne Toppan Wilbur (1817-1864)Verne Translations

  • I. A Voyage in a Balloon , published in: Sartain's Union Magazine of Literature and Art, Philadelphia, May 1852, Vol. X, No. 5, pgs 389-395, 2 chapters.

  • II. The Pearl of Lima. A Story of True Love. Graham's Magazine, Philadelphia, April 1853, Vol. XLII, No. 4, pgs 422-445, 9 chapters.

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Anne Toppan Wilbur

  • Born in the town of Wendell, Franklin County, Massachusetts, 20 June, 1817

  • Educated at Newburyport, taught school

  • Translated several books from French & German

  • Edited Ladies Magazine & Ladies Casket

  • Translated as Florence Leigh andMrs Joseph Wood

  • Died near Marletta, Ohio, 14 September, 1864 (49)

  • More than 50 magazine articles online at APS

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The Death of Nicholas Copernicus.;

Translated from the French by Anne T

Wilbur. Christian Parlor Magazine (1844-

1855). New York: Jan 1, 1849. p. 268

Aerial Ascensions.;

Translated from the French by Anne T

Wilbur, Christian Parlor Magazine

(1844-1855). New York: May 1, 1852. p. 69

 Mentioned by JV in Voyage in a Balloon

 Style elements later used by Verne.

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Anne Toppan Wilbur

The Solitary of Juan Fernandez; or, The Real Robinson Crusoe. by Joseph Xavier Boniface Saintine Ticknor, Reed, and Fields, Boston, 1851

The Roman question. by Edmond About. Translated from the French by Mrs. Annie T. Wood. Boston, J. E. Tilton and company, 1859.

Chrisna; the queen of the Danube. by Joseph Xavier Boniface Saintine , Translated from the French by Anne Toppan (Wilbur) Wood New York, Delisser & Procter, 1859

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The Romance of a Mummy (La Roman de la Momie) by Théophile Gautier, Bradburn, New York: 1863

(This story of an archaeologist in love with a

2000 year old mummy is an early novel of the

science-fiction genre.)

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Jehiel Keeler Hoyt1820-1895

I. From the Earth to the Moon; Passage Direct in 97 hours and 20 minutes, Newark, NJ: Newark Daily and Weekly Journal: (June) 1869, later reprinted as a paper cover book.

First Verne full length book attributable to an Americn author.

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Jehiel Keeler Hoyt

  • Born in New Jersey

  • Broker in New Orleans prior to 1860

  • 1860 Editor of New Brunswick (NJ) Times

  • 1870 moved to Newark, Editor of Newark Daily Advertiser

  • 1872 Romance of the Table (online)

  • 1874 Pen andPencil Sketches of the DLWrr

  • 1882 Cyclopedia of Practical Quotations

  • ‡ Plainfield, NJ, February 9, 1895

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Jehiel Keeler Hoyt, Wordsmith

Funk and Wagnals published his Cyclopedia as:

Hoyt’s New cyclopedia of practical quotations drawn from the speech and literature of all nations, ancient and modern, classic and popular, in English and foreign text with the names, dates, and nationality of quoted authors, and copious indexes

Remained in print as late as 1940.

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Mercier Translations(1820—1875)

I. Twenty thousand Leagues under the Sea, Sampson Low et al.: Nov., 1872

II. From the Earth to the Moon and a Trip Around It,Sampson Low et al.: Oct., 1873

III. Around the World in Eighty Days. Falsely attributed to Lewis Mercier, 1962

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Nancy Regina Emily Meugens (1844-1933)

  • Father, Pierre Meugens born in Belgium

  • Pseudonym “N. D’Anvers”=“Nancy from Antwerp”

  • Married landscape painter Arthur Bell (1849-1916)

  • Mrs. Arthur Bell after 1882

  • Wrote religious, travel, and history books until 1920

  • ‡ 30 Aug 1933, last of Verne xlators

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N. D’Anvers TranslationsNancy Regina Emily Meugens(1844—1933)

I. The Fur Country, Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle: 1873, (her first published work at age 28), reprinted by James Osgood, Boston: 1873.

II. The Great Navigators of the XIX’th Century, Sampson Low, Marston, Low, Searle and Rivington: 1880.

III. The Blockade Runners, Sampson Low, et al.: 1874; ascribed in some editions to “N. D’Anvers”. ??

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Whistler Episode—1902

  • In 1902 Mrs. Bell agreed to write a biography of Whistler for pubisher Geo. Bell and get permission for photos

  • Whistler was strongly opposed

  • 24 letters involving Whistler, Bell, and Charles Freer (Peacock Room at Smithsonian) online at Glasgow University

  • Book eventually published after his death

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Mrs. Arthur Bell Translations—I

Elementary history of art : An introduction to ancient and modern architecture, sculpture, painting, music, by N. D’Anvers [pseud.] With a preface by T. Roger Smith.-- London : Asher & Co., 1874

The house on wheels; or, Far from home, from the French of Mme. De Stolz by N. D’Anvers.-- London: 1874

To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi / Tr. from the German of Edward Mohr, by N. D.’Anvers.-- S. Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, London : 1876

Heroes of South African discovery by N. D’Anvers [pseud.].-- Marcus Ward and Company, London : 1878

Pre-historic America by the Marquis de Nadaillac ; translated by N. d’Anvers [pseud.] ; edited by W.H. Dall.-- J. Murray, London : 1885

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Mrs. Arthur Bell Translations—II

Discovery of lakes Rudolf and Stefanie : a narrative of Count Samuel Teleki’s exploring & hunting expedition in Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1887 & 1888, by his companion Lieut. Ludwig von Höhnel ; translated by Nancy Bell (N. d’Anvers) ... With 179 original illustrations and 5 coloured maps. In two volumes.-- Longmans, Green, London : 1894

French enterprise in Africa : the personal narrative of Lieut. Hourst of his exploration of the Niger , translated by Mrs. Arthur Bell (N. D’Anvers).-- Chapman & Hall, London : 1898

James McNeill Whistler. [With plates, including a portrait.] by Mrs. Arthur Bell /N. D’Anvers, George Bell, London: 1904

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Stephen W. White, William Struthers

  • Operated a translation business in Philadelphia near Evening Telegraph office

  • “Phonographer and Translator” who "will furnish on short notice and at reasonable terms, Phonographic reports and Translations of German and French legal and other documents."

  • Translated literally as in a legal document, with no embellishments

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Stephen W. White, William Struthers

  • I. * The Tour of the World in Eighty Days, tr. by Stephen W. White, Philadelphia Evening Telegraph: June 27, 1874--July 17, 1874; reprinted (with deletions) by Charles E. Warburton (Bound together with II.)

  • II.A Fancy of Doctor Ox , tr. by Stephen W. White, Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, June 20, 1874: reprinted by Warburton, (Bound together with I.)

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Stephen W. White, William Struthers

  • III. *A Journey to the Centre of the Earth, tr. by Stephen W. White, Philadelphia Evening Telegraph: Sept. 12, 1874—Oct. 5, 1874, reprinted by Warburton. (Bound together with IV.)

  • IV.A Winter’s Sojourn in the Ice, tr. by William Struthers, Philadelphia Evening Telegraph: Oct. 6, 1874—Oct. 10, 1874, reprinted by Charles E. Warburton. (Bound together with III.)

  • V.*Mysterious Island, Philadelphia Evening Telegraph: 1876, republished Project Gutenberg: 2003 (N. Wolcott and Sidney Kravitz, eds.)

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Abby Langford Alger (1850—1907)

  • Cousin of Horatio Alger, Jr., author

  • b. 3 Aug 1850 in Roxbury, MA

  • d. 23 May 1907 in Brookline, MA

  • Daughter of the Reverend William Rounseville Alger(1822-1905) ,B.A. Harvard College

  • Simplified words, place names for American audience

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Abbey Langford AlgerOther Translations

Life of Robt. Schumann, by J.W. von Wasieowsky, Boston, 1871

Reading as a Fine Art, by Ernest Legouvé, Boston, 1879

Mischief Book, from the German of W. Busch, N. York, 1879

The Actor and his Art,by D. Coquelin, Boston, 1881

The Usurper, by Judith Gautier, Boston, 1884

Life and Works of Robert Schumann, by A. Reissman, Boston ,1886

The Little Flower of St, Francis of Assisi, from the Italian, Boston 1887

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Abby Langford Alger1850-1907Verne Translation

I. From the Clouds to the Mountains, Compelling Narratives of Strange Adventures by Air, Land, and Water, William F. Gill and Company, Boston: 1874

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Frederick Amadeus Malleson (1819-1897)

  • Trinity College, Dublin, B.A. 1853 and M.A. 1860

  • Ordained deacon 1853; priest 1855

  • Vicar at Broughton-in-Furnace, Lake District, Income £130 and house—1870

  • Wrote religious works and about Wordsworth

  • Friend of John Ruskin, the painter

  • Signed only F.A.M.

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Malleson Verne Translations1819—1897

I. Five Weeks in a Balloon, Ward, Lock, and Tyler: 1875 ?? [The author questions this attribution to F.A.M. Although listed in bibliographies, the style is totally foreign to that of II.]

II. A Journey into the Interior of the Earth, Ward, Lock, and Tyler: 1876

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Other Malleson Works—I

  • Doddridge’s Rise & Progress of Religion in the Soul. / Doddridge, Philip ; Malleson, Frederick Amadeus.-- London, J. B. Bateman: 1842.

  • Brigadier Frederic: a Story of an Alsatian Exile. Erckmann, Émile, and Chatrian, Pierre Alexandre, [tr. by F. A. M.]; London, Smith Elder & Co.: 1875.

  • The Man-Wolf and Other Tales. Erckmann, Émile, and Chatrian, Pierre Alexandre; tr. by F. A. M.; Ward, Lock, and Tyler: 1876.

  • Letters addressed by Professor Ruskin, D.C.L., to the clergy on the Lord’s prayer and the Church / edited by F. A. Malleson.-- s.l. : Printed for private circulation, [1879]

  • Jesus Christ, his life and his work. / Malleson, Frederick Amadeus -- London, Ward, Lock & Co.: 1880.

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Other Malleson Works—II

  • The Lord’s prayer and the church : letters to the clergy / by John Ruskin; edited, with essays and comments, by the Rev. F.A. Malleson....-- London, Strahan and Company: 1880.

  • Holiday Studies of Wordsworth by Rivers, Woods, and Alps : the Wharfe, the Duddon, and the Stelvio Pass / by Rev. F.A. Malleson.-- London ; Paris : Cassell and Co., [1890]

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Thomas H. Linklater(1849 —??)

  • Born in London, brother to Robert Linklater, a Church. of England clergyman

  • In 1871 living with his brother in Beckenham, Kent, occupation “Accountant”

  • By 1877 translated the Moon novels

  • 1881 a “visitor” with his brother at the Mission House, 16 Marston St, Cowley, Oxford.

  • May have become a missionary, no record.

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Thomas H. Linklater1849—??

Only known book is the translation of Jules Verne’s Moon Novels (at age 27):

I. From the Earth to the Moon Direct and Round the Moon, George Routledge and Sons: 1877

An excellent translation

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Edward Roth(1826—1911)

  • Born in England

  • Emigrated to US about 1845

  • Instructor at the Broadhurst Academy, Philadelphia, where still living in 1910

  • Wrote several books and translations

  • Verne translations were parodies

  • Corrected equation errors in moon novels

  • Derived initial velocity equations two ways, using (1) calculus and (2) ratios

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Edward Roth(1826—1911)

I. The Baltimore Gun Club, King and Baird, Philadelphia: 1874

II. All Around the Moon, Philadelphia, Catholic Publication Society: 1876

III. To the Sun? a Journey through Planetary Space, Claxton, Remsen and Haffelfinger, Philadelphia: 1877

IV. Off on a Comet, a Journey through Planetary Space, a sequel to To the Sun?, Claxton, Remsen and Haffelfinger, Philadelphia: 1878

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Velocity according to Verne

Velocity according to Roth

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Roth Other Works—I

Life of Napoleon III., Emperor of the French, Boston, P. Donahoe: 1856

Christus Judex. A traveller's tale, ( A Tale of the White Mountains) Frederick Leypoldt, Philadelphia: 1864. Online version available

The Rescue of France, by C.F.B. Miel, tr. Edward Roth, Philadelphia, —King & Baird, printers: 1872.

Short Geography, Philadelphia, Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger: 1876

The art of reading, by Ernest Legouvé ... Translated, and illustrated with copious notes, by Edward Roth, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott & Co.: 1885

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Roth Other Works—II

Gray Tigers of Smithville, Philadelphia, W. F. Fell & Co.: 1887

Conversational French and English; an elementary knowledge of both languages taught by thorough practice in the grammatical principles of each ... Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott: 1899

Select Orations of Lysias, Philadelphia, D. McKay: 1899

Sherlock Holmes (Conan Doyle's famous creation), quelques chapitres de sa vie, a few chapters of his life; avec questions et réponnses, with questions and answers. Philadelphia, E. Roth:1902

Conversational French, especially intended for self-instruction, schools, families, or American desirous of becoming French teachers. First year. Philadelphia, E. Roth: 1903.

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Roth—Book Sale

In 1893 Roth auctioned off his library and his collection of “philosophical instruments”; the auction took four days! The catalogue of his sale is in the New York Public Library:

Valuable private library : belonging to Prof. Edward Roth, of Phila. comprising a general assortment of works in the various branches of literature : also a large collection of philosophical instruments, to be sold ... May 8, 9, 10, and 11, 1893 ... sale conducted by Stan. V. Henkels ...

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Agnes Kinloch Kingston (1824—1913)William Henry Giles Kingston(1814—1880)

  • Married W.H.G. Kingston 1853

  • Kingston suffered serious financial difficulties with a family of eight children .

  • Translated out of financial necessity

  • Rev. R. M. Kingsford acquires diaries, 1942, of both AKK and WHGK

  • All Verne works and Swiss Family Robinson totally the work of Agnes Kingston

  • Well known at the time, but forgotten

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Agnes Kinloch Kingston William Henry Giles Kingston


  • “Mrs. Kingston . . . often assisted her husband in his literary work . . . and she herself undertook the translation from the German of an edition of Swiss Family Robinson and from the French of several of the works of Jules Verne”,

    • The Times, London, May 28, 1913.

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Times Obituary Agnes Kinloch Kingston

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Agnes Kinloch Kingston

The works translated by Agnes Kinloch Kingston in her husband’s name are:

I. The Mysterious Island, Sampson Low et. al., 3 volumes: 1875, reprinted by Scribner, Armstrong, & Co., New York, 1 volume: 1876

II. Michael Strogoff, Sampson Low et al.: 1876, reprinted by Scribner, Armstrong, & Co., “revised by Julius Chambers”: 1877

III.The Child of the Cavern; or Strange Doings Underground, Sampson Low et al.: 1877

IV. The Begum’s Fortune; with an account of the Mutineers of the Bounty, Sampson Low et al.: 1879, reprinted by J. B. Lippincott: 1879

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Agnes Kinloch Kingston (1824—1913)Agnes Dundas Kingston(1856 — 1886)

  • Agnes Dundas Kingston, the daughter of W.H.G. Kingston,was born in Blackheath, Kent. Died young at age 30

  • In 1881 living with her mother in family home, Stormont, Willesden

  • Mrs. Kingston, already translating the Steam House completed the contract with her daughter.

  • Footnote in Steam House “absolves translators” from responsibiity for Verne’s description of Sepoy rebellion

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Agnes Kincloch KingstonAgnes Dundas Kingston (1856 — 1886)

I. The Demon of Cawnpore, pt 1 of The Steam House, Sampson Low et al.: 1880.

II. Tigers and Traitors, pt 2 of The Steam House, Sampson Low et al.: 1881

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Emma Garrison(1833 — 1898)Virginia Native

  • Published numerous “Dime Novels” under the name of Emma Garrison and her married name Emma Garrison Jones

  • Verne translations were under the name of E. G. Walraven.

  • Born in Garrisonville, VA, near present day Quantico. A rural farming community until the 1950’s

  • Won a prize of $60 for a story published in The Dollar Newspaper, January 11, 1860

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Emma Garrison(1833—1898)

  • Married Nicholas W. Jones in Washington, DC, 1863

  • Returned to Garrisonville until 1882

  • Exclusive contract with Norman L. Munro, brother of George Munro to write only for The Family Story Paper, 1882,for 3 yrs

  • “Earning $10,000 a year” in 1888

  • Moved to Martinburg, WV, early 1880’s

  • Died in Washington DC, 2 Feb 1898

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Emma Garrison Translations

I.Michael Strogoff, From Moscow to Irkoutsk. Frank Leslie: 1876

II. Adventures in the Solar World. Frank Leslie: 1877 (not located as of 2005)

Garrison's translation of Michel Strogoff is a much more literal and complete translation than that of Kingston, which omits several portions of the descriptions and some difficult passages. It was first published starting March 4, 1876 in serial form in Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner.

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Jeremiah C. Curtin(1850—1913)

  • Born near Peterborough, Ontario, 1850, of Irish parents

  • At 16 entered St. Michael’s School, Toronto

  • 1870 entered Sulpitian Seminary, Montreal

  • 1875 taught classics in Jesuit College of St, Francis Xavier, New York

  • 1877 editor of the New York Tablet

  • 1878 editor of New York Irish Globe

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Jeremiah C. Curtin (J. C. Curtin)

  • 1882, Associate Editor, Redpath’s Illustrated Weekly, Philadelphia, a cultural Catholic and Irish periodical

  • Supported Blaine for president

  • Experienced Verne in “real time”, 20 yrs old when 20,000 Leagues was published

  • An early “Fan of Jules Verne”, translated for love not money

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J. C. Curtin(1850—1913)Verne Translations

I.The Headstrong Turk. Part I. Redpath’s Weekly, 27 OCT 1883—24 NOV 1883

II. The Headstrong Turk,Part II. Redpath’s Weekly, 01 DEC 1883—26 JAN 1884

III. An American Robinson Crusoe. Redpath’s Weekly, 05 OCT 1883—19 OCT 1883

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J. C. Curtinbooks

  • Doctor Rameau / by Georges Ohnet, 1848-1918; translated from the French by J.C. Curtin, Rand, McNally, 1889.

  • The hunter of the Alps. / Tr. from the Italian of Rev. Father Ballerine, S.J. (b. 1830), by J. C. Curtin.,D. & J. Sadlier & co., New York:1879. 566 pages.

  • A Catholic view of education in the United States; a paper, New York, E. Steiger, 1879.

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J. C. Curtinbooks

  • Ohnet, Georges, 1848-1918 The double wrong; or, A broken life. Tr by J. C. Curtin. New York, Pollard & Moss, 1889. 221 p.

  • The lectures, sermons, addresses, and letters of Rev. Dr. D.W. Cahill / compiled and edited by J.C. Curtin ; with a biographical sketch by the editor. New York : D. & J. Sadlier, c1879

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Frances Sarah Johnston(1830-1908)

  • Pen name “Mrs. Cashel Hoey”

  • Born 14 Feb 1830 in Bushy Park, Dublin

  • At age 16 married Adam Murray Stewart who died in 1855

  • 1858 converted to Catholicism and married John Cashel Hoey (1828-1893), C.M.G., a Knight of Malta, a Dublin journalist

  • Wrote in all 16 novels, 5 as ghost writer.

  • Granted a civil list pension of £50 in 1892

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Frances Sarah Johnston(1830-1908)

  • In need of money after 1890 began translating exclusively (1890-1899)

  • Translated 29 works from the French and Italian, mostly for Sampson Low et al. between 1890 and 1899

  • Died on 8 July 1908 at Beccles, Suffolk

  • Buried in the churchyard of the Benedictine church at Little Malvern, Worcestershire.

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Frances Sarah Johnston (Mrs. Cashel Hoey)(1830—1908)

I. For the Flag, Sampson Low et al.: 1897

II.An Antarctic Mystery, Sampson Low et al.: 1898

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Hope Cranstoun Metcalfe (1866 - 1939)

  • Born in Malaya, , son of Julia R. (Shaw) Metcalfe and Ernest Metcalfe, A Major in the Madras Army who died shortly after birth

  • 1860’s after death of 2 children family relocated from London to Devon.

  • Attended Honiton Grammar School, matriculated at Corpus Christi College,Cambridge University, 1884, no degree but spent 2 years in France

  • Married Edith Kirkpatrick, 1894,(2nd wife), with 5 surviving children

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Hope Cranstoun Metcalfe

  • 1902,Splendid Mourning, a novel, started publishing career

  • 1912, The Daughters of Louis XV : (mesdames de France) tr. from the French of Casimir Stryienski

  • 1913, Peeresses of the Stage ... With twenty-four portraits, About actresses, who have married peers of the realm, or sons of peers of the realm

  • 1915, tr. Fantômas by Pierre Souvestre and Marcel Allain — “Fantômas is the Lord of Terror, the Genius of Evil, the arch-criminal anti-hero of a series of 32 pre-WWI French thrillers”

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Isabel Maude Penrice, Countess Clancarty (d. 1906), née Bilton. [Stage name: Belle Bilton].

Musical comedy actress; m. (1889) 5th Earl Clancarty.

A Peeress of the Stage

Coronation of King Edward VII, 9 August 1902

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Hope Cranstoun Metcalfe Bilton. [Stage name: Belle Bilton]. (1866—1939)Translations

I. Master of the World, Sampson Low, 1914

II.Their Island Home, Sampson Low, 1923

III. Castaways of the Flag, Sampson Low, 1923

IV.Lighthouse at the End of the World, Sampson Low et al.: 1923

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Hope Cranstoun Metcalfe Bilton. [Stage name: Belle Bilton]. (1866—1939)

  • 1927, last published work

  • Lived in 127 Redcliffe Square, Kensington

  • Died, 1939, buried with wife Edith in Gunnersbury Cemetery

  • And so sometime in 1939 the last living Sampson Low translator and contemporary of Jules Verne departed this earth.