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The i-mode Story. Prepared: Jerry Gao Ph.D. San Jose State University email: jerrygao@email.sjsu.edu URL: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerry Oct., 2002. Topic: Overview of i-mode. Presentation Outline.

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the i mode story
The i-mode Story

Prepared: Jerry Gao Ph.D.San Jose State Universityemail: jerrygao@email.sjsu.eduURL: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerryOct., 2002

topic overview of i mode
Topic: Overview of i-mode

Presentation Outline

- A Successful Story -> The i-mode story - i-mode services- Basic Features of i-mode- i-mode structure and architecture- i-mode Experience and Lessons- Advantages and Limitations- Comparisons of i-mode and WAP- Challenges and Future of i-mode

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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topic overview of i mode3
Topic: Overview of I--mode

The I-mode Story

  • The most popular wireless data service on the plant is i-mode.
  • i-mode was developed by DoCoMo ( which means “anywhere” in Japanese) as a subsidiary of NTT (The Japan’s largest telecommunication service provider Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp.) in 1992.
  • i-mode (The “i” stands for information) is a wireless technology and service mark.
  • The i-mode service, begun in Feb. 1999, enable users to access Internet services via their cellular i-mode phones.
  • With each subscriber on average signing up for three additional services at $1 per month per service, NTT DoCoMo earns $36 per year per subscriber in incremental business.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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topic overview of i mode4
Topic: Overview of I--mode

The i-mode Services

  • The provided services for I-mode customers:
  • Voice communications
  • A large number of sites by simply pressing the i-mode key.
  • Over a dozen I-mode search engines and sites that provide a lot of information services on sports, stock quotes, maps, weather forecasts, restaurant coupon discounts, and horoscopes.
  • The convenient and useful mobile commerce services, such as mobile banking, stock trading, and ticket reservations.
  • i-mode is compatible with Internet e-mail and can also transfer mail between i-mode devices.
  • Application downloads from more than 1600 web sites.
  • As of July 2001, there were 25 million subscribers and more than 37,000 i-mode sites, including 1,420 preferred sites.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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topic overview of i mode5
Topic: Overview of I--mode

The Basic Features of i-mode

i-mode 2G service has a transmission speed of 9.6 kbps.

i-mode has the underlying packet-switching system.

i-mode uses SSL or Secure Socket Layer, provided by RSA.

i-mode uses Sun Solaris servers on the back end.

i-mode service uses compression technology to increase the volume of data that is transmitted.

i-mode service uses I-mode browser to interact with users

i-mode uses Compact HTML (C-HTML) and proprietary protocol stack.

i-mode provides an always-on service -> no dial is needed.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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slide6

Topic: Overview of i-mode

The Basic Features of i-mode

  • Suite of applications that make up the total iMode Service including:
    • Browser – currently based on cHTML but changing to xHTML
    • iMode Email client – Proprietary HTTP Mail
    • Security Stack – based on SSL 3.0
    • iMelody – downloadable ringer tone service using MII
    • iAnimation – Animated GIF support in grayscale and color
    • DoCoMo pictograms – downloadable graphics such as a Pokemon (future of Japanese economy)
    • i-appli Java service supporting application downloads

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode features

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode Features

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode features10

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode Features

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode structure

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode Structure

Connecting to sites, receiving messages and transmitting e-mail are done via the DoCoMo i-mode center.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode architecture

Client

Portal

HTTP

HTTP

HTTP

HTTP

SSL

SSL

SSL

SSL

TCP

W-TCP

TCP

W-TCP

IP

IP

IP

IP

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode Architecture

Web Server

CGI

Scripts

etc.

CHTML

CHTML

CHTML

CHTML

iMode

HTTP

C-HTML

with CHTML-Script

Content

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode success

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode Success
  • Japan marketed iMode as an experience not a technology
    • Targeted to consumers
    • Large, readable screens COLOR
    • Phone enables (email, melodies, animations, etc.)
    • Lots of content sites: 500+ official, 15K+ unofficial content provider sites.
  • Business Model:
    • Gateways provide email, notification, DoCoMo served content tracks usage
    • DoCoMo collects fees, takes part of it, and sells packets. They can barely keep up with demand.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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lessons from japan s i mode success

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Lessons from Japan’s i-mode Success
  • The big secret of the success of I-mode is that Internet developers can put their web site content online with few changes.
  • If you keep a customer on the air, DoCoMo or a third party will given you the major cut of the transaction.
  • Other Japanese merits:
    • Packet-switched service is always connected.
      • Pay for exchanged information or data
      • No need to access network (for example, no dial-up service and time)
    • Attraction comes from personal value, not Internet hype.
      • They want to attract ordinary people, not techies.
      • Keep operations and service simple, technology are hidden.
    • The service is a viable national technology enclave.
      • Hardware, network, and software are perfectly matched
      • Network and device standards are harmonized.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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lessons from japan s i mode success15

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Lessons from Japan’s i-mode Success
  • Content makers are given choices.
    • Wild content on the Internet are offered
    • A trusted service is provided to subscribers
  • The micro-billing economy encourages consumer purchasing.
  • Simple Internet standards make everyone’s work easier.
  • Subscribers use quality handsets.
    • I-mode handsets are the work of art and standardized.
  • Complete products are offered from the carrier.
    • Subscribers have comprehensive billing.
  • Satisfied subscribers get what they want.
    • At the beginning of 2001, the i-mode application breakdown is 64% entertainment, 21% information, 9% transaction, and 6% database.
  • A mature commercial infrastructure contributes to use.
    • Japanese commercial infrastructure, including hotel, restaurants, taxi companies,and banks, grouped and supported by an i-mode society.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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i mode is evolving

Topic: Overview of i-mode

i-mode is Evolving
  • Video clips being added.
  • More sound support/voices.
  • Kjava arrived in 1Q’01.
  • SSL coming online.
  • Emphasis is on what end users will find exciting and interesting.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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advantages and disadvantages

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages:

  • iMode technology does not require special language for the mobile unit. It could access all existing web sites by using cHTML (compact HTML).
  • iMode is accessible by a packet-switched network, meaning that users are always online.
  • iMode users are charged only for the amount of information downloaded to the iMode unit, not the time they spend at the web sites.
  • Disadvantages:
  • iMode service and technology is currently only available in Japan.
  • iMode is not an entirely open protocol. That limits the drive the developers can make for this technology.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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imode vs wap network

Topic: Overview of i-mode

iMode vs. WAP - Network
  • Neither WAP nor iMode rely on one particular underlying network type.
  • WAP in Europe has been deployed on a circuit-switched network.
  • iMode in Japan has been deployed on a packet-switched network.
  • WAP users will have to endure waiting during connection set-up and being charged for time spent on-line until their network operators upgrade to a packet-switched network.
  • iMode users enjoys almost-instant downloads and the response times needed for online gaming with their "always-on" network.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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imode vs wap markup language

Topic: Overview of i-mode

iMode vs. WAP - Markup Language
  • WAP uses WML which is a new language.
  • iMode uses cHTML which is simply an extended subset of the existing HTML Web standard.
  • iMode can immediately make use of the skills of current WWW developers, but those interested in producing content for WAP browsers must learn WML from scratch.
  • As the WWW community migrates away from HTML and towards XML in the next few years, iMode may find that it's short-term stop-gap approach loses out to WAP's longer-term measured approach.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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imode vs wap deployed applications

Topic: Overview of i-mode

iMode vs. WAP - Deployed Applications
  • WAP in Europe uses text and no images small screen.
  • iMode in Japan uses text and color images and larger screen.
  • WAP is Marketed for business application (banking, stock portfolio, business news, flight booking).
  • iMode marketed for consumer applications (restaurant guide, fun images, ringing melodies).

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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slide21

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Comparison i-mode & WAP

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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comparison i mode wap

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Comparison i-mode & WAP

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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market of i mode wap

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Market of i-mode & WAP

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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future of wap and i mode

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Future of WAP and i-mode

WAP 2.0

iMode on IMT-2000

Current i-mode

WAP 1.x

WML

WML

CHTML

XML

XML

WSP

WSP

HTTP

HTTP

HTTP

WTP

SSL

TLS

SSL/TLS

WTLS

TL

W-TCP

W-TCP

WDP

UDP

WDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

Network Bearer

PDC-P

Network Bearer

Network Bearer IMT 2000

Network Bearer

Future Protocol Proposed Stack

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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challenges of i mode

Topic: Overview of i-mode

Challenges of i-mode
  • i-mode's content seems to be heavily tied to Japanese culture and may not easily translate to other countries.
  • CHTML is incompatible with full HTML.
  • i-mode does not support security layer because it is not required for consumer applications.
  • i-mode uses the PDC-P network which is not a world standard while other parts of the world like Asia and Europe have circuit switched networks in place.

Jerry Gao Ph.D. 10/2002

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