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Speech Motor Deficits in Cerebral Palsied Children: An Acoustic-Perceptual Approach. 1 Department of Communication Disorders, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand 2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial and Children Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
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1Department of Communication Disorders, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial and Children Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Department of Physical Therapy, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
The 5th Asia Pacific Conference on Speech, Language and Hearing
July 9-13, 2007
Emily Lin, PhD1, Chia-Ling Chen, MD, PhD2, 3, & Chao-Chin Lee, BSLT1
Definition (Blaire & Watson, 2006):
(Denhoff, 1976; Blair & Stanley, 1997; Hagberg et al., 2001)
Intrauterine viral infections e.g. Rubella & Cytomegalo-virus (CMV)
Intrauterine viral infections e.g. Rubella & Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Low gestation age
Hagberg & Mallard, 2000;
Blair & Stanley, 1993; Stanley, 1997)
Maternal thyroid abnormalities
Low Apgar scores
(Nelson & Ellenberg, 1981)
(Blair & Stanley, 1993; Stanley, 1997)
Perinatal exposure: Methyl mercury
(Amin-Zaki, Majeed, Elhassani et al., 1979; Stanley, 1997)
(Nelson & Grether, 1999)
1.9:1 to 0.99:1 (M:F)
(Blair & Stanley, 1997)
(Pharoah, Buttfield & Hetzel, 1971)
↓ Speech Intelligibility
↓ Speech Naturalness
(Kent, Netsell, & Abbs, 1978)
(Hixon & Hardy, 1964)
(Hardy, 1961; Kent & Netsell, 1978)
* Dysarthria is characterized by centralized vowel articulation as well as reduced articulatory precision for fricatives and affricates (Ansel and Kent, 1992)
(Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand, & Bell, 1999)
Critical to vowel perception (Peterson & Barney, 1952)
F1 relates to tongue height & F2 to tongue advancement (Kent et al., 1999)
Related to overall speech intelligibility (Turner, Tjaden & Weismer, 1995; Ansel & Kent, 1992; Liu, Tsao & Kuhl, 2005; Liu, Tseng & Tsao, 2000; Whitehill & Ciocca, 20)
Vowel Space (F1-F2 Plot)
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
5 males (2 spastic quadriplegia & 3 spastic diplegia*)
*Quadriplegia: four limb involvement with unsymmetrical
severity on two sides;
Diplegia: four limb involvement with symmetrical severity on
both sides and with the lower limb involvement usually more severe than the upper limb
“ratio”: /pi3 li4/ “grain of rice”: /mi3 li4/
* C = consonant; V = vowel; N = nasal
Measure-remeasure reliability (20% data):
non-retroflexed counterparts. But incorrect productions were inconsistent.
counterparts. But incorrect productions were inconsistent.
- M1 contrast inconsistent
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