Reading Strategy Understanding Text Organization
Why do we teach text organization? • Many teachers assume that a student who can read narrative texts well will be able to read expository texts well. • Many students have problems comprehending expository text because they can’t see the basic structure of text.(Dymock,2005)
do we teach text organization? Why • Text comprehension is improved when students can recognize the underlying structure of text (Williams, 2005). • “Awareness" of text structure helps students understand global ideas, or main theses (Seidenberg, 1989;Weaver & Kintsch, 1991) • Students are more likely to remember and interpret the ideas they encounter when they read.
to teach ? What • How to identify the important structural elements of different types of expository text: • Physical presentation • Text Structure
What to teach ?
How to teach this strategy? Teaching Demonstration – Comparison text structure
Comparison – Cold & Flu Flu Cold Differences Differences • a more serious illness Similarities • usually last about a week • caused by viruses • a high fever • a dry cough • much worse aching • last for longer – at least two weeks • can be a deadly disease • runny nose & sneezing • headache • sore throat • a cough • aching muscles
Inside the classroom - Teaching procedures 1. Introduce the idea that expository texts have different organizational patterns. 2. Tell students it is powerful to understand how writers organize their ideas by applying their knowledge in text organization. 3. Introduce text patterns and explain that text structure can sometimes be identified by certain signal words.
Inside the classroom - Teaching procedures 4. Model ways students can use clues to identify text structures and share an example. (Especially when signal words cannot be found) 5. Introduce graphic organizers for the patterns and help students make order out of the texts 6. Make use of the overhead projector or the computer to involve the class in completing a graphic organizer illustrating the text structure.
Appendix 1 Comparison Differences Differences Similarities
Appendix 2 Description
Appendix 3 Sequence Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5
Appendix 4 Problem and Solution
Appendix 5 Cause and Effect
Further Practice • Provide opportunities for students to have guided and independent practice. • Students can work in pairs or individually to identify examples of the structure in other texts. • Let more able students model the writing of a paragraph that follows a specific text structure. • This will reinforce students’ understanding of the text structure. • Teach for transfer – e.g. Integrated Science
Discussion (5 minutes) • Please refer to the given text (Passage 1, 2, 3 or 4) in your group selected from a textbook. Skim the parts that are framed. 1. What kind of text structure can we locate in the text? 2. What signal words can we ask students to identify? 3. Which graphic organizer(s) (Appendix 1-5) can we introduce to students? 4. What information can we ask students to put in the organizer(s) based on the text?
Passage 1 Comparison Sharks Fish Differences Differences Similarities • fish can float • Fish have skeletons made of hard bones • Shark can’t float • Sharks have skeletons made of hard cartilage • Shark have several rows of teeth • Some sharks attack humans • live in water Signal words: different from, but
Passage 2 Description Signal words: for example, also, such as
Passage 2 Comparison Halloween today Halloween in the past • People made lanterns out of turnips • People put out food for ghosts • People walked around the streets nosily • People played tricked on others Similarities • People make lanterns out of pumpkins and sometimes watermelons • People give sweets to children • People play “Trick or Treating”. • playing “apple bobbing” • dressing up in scary costumes Signal words: the same as, still, but
Passage 3 Sequence 1886:Coca-Cola wasinvented by Dr. John Pemberton 1888:Dr. John Pemberton told the business to Asa Griggs Candler 1898:Asa Griggs Candler licensed the bottling of Coca-Cola. 1903:Asa Candler took out the cocaine from the drink as it was a drug 1965: Coca-Cola was first made in Hong Kong
Passage 4 Cause and Effect No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that the resulting effects of the problem will be followed by the question.
Passage 1 No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that solutions to the problem will be followed by the question Problem and Solution
Is it worth spending time doing this? • Students… • will be more familiar with different text structures. • will gain a better understanding of how ideas are organized in different text structures. • will be able to apply their knowledge to predict what they may read in the text. • will become more independent readers. Resources consulted: http://www.educationoasis.com http://www.itrc.ucf.edu/forpd/about/
An important point to note • Text connections should lead to text comprehension. • Intervention is needed to prevent students from being distracted from the text Resources consulted: http://www.educationoasis.com http://www.itrc.ucf.edu/forpd/about/
Making Connections Cue Card make sense of the text by using their prior knowledge better understand and digest what they read