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QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS. A/Professor Denis McLaughlin School of Educational Leadership. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS. Y ou have a book of readings with relevant extracts from the following books. They must be read Dey, I (1993) Qualitative data analysis , London: Routledge

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qualitative data analysis

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

A/Professor Denis McLaughlin

School of Educational Leadership

qualitative data analysis2

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

You have a book of readings with relevant extracts from the following books. They must be read

Dey, I (1993) Qualitative data analysis, London: Routledge

Miles, M & Huberman, A (1984). Qualitative data analysis, Newbury park: Sage

Miles, M & Huberman, A (1994). Qualitative data analysis : An expanded source book (2nd edition), Thousand Oakes: Sage

Coffey, A. & Atkinson, P.(1996).Making sense of qualitative data, Thousand Oaes: Sage

Marshall, C. & Rossman, G. (1989).Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park: Sage

Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research, New York: Falmer Press

Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design, Thousand Oaks: Sage

Creswell, J. (2002). Analyzing and interpreting qualitative data (pp256-283). In J Creswell, Educational research, Thousand Oaks: Sage

Maykut, P. & Morehouse, R. (1994) Qualitative data analysis: using the constant comparative method , In P. Maykut & R. Morehouse, Beginning qualitative research, London Falmer Press

research strategy identification
RESEARCH STRATEGY IDENTIFICATION
  • RESEARCH PROBLEM

RESEARCH PURPOSE

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

ISSUES TO BE EXPLORED

APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES

overview of qualitative analysis
OVERVIEW OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Data Collection

Data display

Data reduction

Conclusions: drawing / verifying

(Miles & Huberman, 1984; 1994)

interactive process of data analysis
INTERACTIVE PROCESS OF DATA ANALYSIS

Data display

  • Data collection

Reflection on Data

ITERATIVE

SIMULTANEOUS

Data Coding

Data distillation (reduction

Generation of Themes

Story interpretation

Research Conclusions

qualitative analysis dey 1993
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS(Dey, 1993)

describing

Connecting

Classifying

data analysis procedures

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

In this section of your Design chapter mention the following characteristics of the process

Data analysis is an eclectic process (Tesch,1990)

Occurssimultaneouslyand iterativewith data collection, data interpretation and report writing (Creswell, 2002; Miles & Huberman, 1984)

Is based on the on data reduction and interpretation-decontextualisation & recontextualisation(Marshall & Rossman, 1989; Tesch, 1990)

2 data analysis procedures
2. Data Analysis Procedures
  • Represents information in matrices-displays of information , spatial format that presents information systematically to reader
      • (Miles and Huberman, 1984)

A I page example of this must be placed in this chapter eventually

      • Display categories by informants, sites and other …
      • Tables of tabular information showing relationships among categories of information
  • Identifies the coding procedure to be used to reduce information to themes / categories(Read Tesch, 1990, pp142-145).
categorisation and themes
Categorisation and Themes
  • Constant comparative content analysis
  • Themes generated from the literature review
  • Themes embedded in instrument questions
  • Themes embedded in research questions
  • Combination of any of above
data organisation miles huberman 1994
DATA ORGANISATION(Miles & Huberman, 1994)

DEVELOP MATRICES : VISUAL IMAGES OF INFORMATION

Comparison tables –themes, participants, sites

Heirarchical trees visually representing themes & their relations

Figures in boxes to indicate the processes, time sequence, evolution of themes

Organising the data by typeinterviews, observations, documents

Organising by participants or sites combinations

See Michael Dredge’s Power point at the end of this sequence on this issue

data analysis
DATA ANALYSIS
  • MANUAL
    • LESS THAN 500 PAGES OF TRANSCRIPTS OR FIELD NOTES
    • WANT TO “FEEL” CLOSE TO DATA
    • CANNOT AFFORD TO HAVE ALL INTERVIEWS TRANSCRIBED
    • (4 HRS TO TRANSCRIBE 1 HR TAPE INTERVIEW)
  • COMPUTER
    • MORE THAN 500 PAGES OF DATA
    • CAN AFFORD PROGRAM AND TRANSCRIBER
    • ATLAS.ti
    • QSR N5 (NUD8IST 5.0)
    • NVivo
    • Ethnograph
    • WinMAX
    • HyperResearch
coding data see tesch pp142 145
CODING DATA(see Tesch, pp142 -145)
  • 1. Get sense of whole: read all carefully
  • 2. Pick one document “what is its underlying meaning” write thoughts themes in margin
  • 3. Do this for several informants; Cluster together similar topics; arrange topics into major topics, unique topics, left overs
  • 4. Revisit data with topics; Abbreviate the topics as codes; Re-analyse. Do new codes emerge?
  • 5. Turn topics into themes
  • 6. Reduce number of themes by grouping similar themes
  • 7. Diagrammatize the basics of the numbers 5 & 6
  • 8. Finalise abbreviations- alphabetise codes
  • 9. Perform preliminary analysis on material belonging to each theme
  • 10. If necessary, recode existing data
  • Always include in your design chapter a page of text (exhibit 4.x) illustrating the how you code the text
slide14

Read text data

Divide text into segments of information

Code segments

Reduce Codes

Collapse codes into themes

Codes reduced to 20

Many pages of texts

Many segments of texts

30 – 40 codes

Codes reduced to 5 -7 themes

CODING PROCESS (Creswell, 2002)

(Matrix example)

description of data analysis matrix example

Initial data analysis

Major and minor topics

Theme 1

Theme 2

Theme 3

Theme 4

Final interpretation

Description of Data Analysis(Matrix example)

In your analysis chapter you would present a diagram such as this at the beginning but with actual contextual material to illustrate the flow of your analysis. You would “flag” this overview in your Design chapter and refer specifically to it

Stage 1

Data collection, display

reflection

Stage 2

Data coding & distillation

Stage 3

Generation of key themes

Stage 4

Story report &

conclusions