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Privation. www.psychlotron.org.uk. What are the effects? Can the effects be reversed? Is there a critical period for the development of some abilities? Sociability Language. Privation. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Hodges & Tizard (1989)

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privation
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • What are the effects?
  • Can the effects be reversed?
  • Is there a critical period for the development of some abilities?
    • Sociability
    • Language
privation2
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Hodges & Tizard (1989)
    • Social and emotional effects of privation through institutionalisation
    • Key questions were about reversibility of effects
privation3
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Hodges & Tizard (1989)
    • Compared institutionalised children with a control sample
    • 65 children placed in care before 4 months; controls raised at home
    • Longitudinal study (16 years)
    • Measures of social & emotional competence at 4, 8 & 16 years
privation4
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

privation5
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Mixed evidence for reversibility
    • Adopted group developed apparently normal attachments
    • Restored group had poor attachments and often presented behavioural problems
  • Both groups had problems outside the family:
    • Poorer peer relationships than controls
    • Attention seeking from adults
privation6
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Curtiss (1989) – ‘Genie’
    • Extreme privation & abuse
    • Intense rehabilitative effort
    • Limited success – some attachments, some language
  • Many problems:
    • Possibly not developmentally normal
    • Questions about rehabilitation techniques
privation7
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Koluchova (1976) – ‘Czech twins’
    • Locked in cellar until 7yrs, beaten
    • No language, gestural communication, severe developmental delay
    • Adopted at 9yrs, developmentally normal by 14 yrs
  • Some problems:
    • Twins had opportunity to attach to each other – possible protective effect
privation8
Privation

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Freud & Dann (1951)
    • Child survivors of Nazi death camps
    • Hostile to adults, limited language
    • Adopted at 6yrs, formed attachments to carers eventually
    • Emotional problems (e.g. depression) persisted
privation conclusions
Privation - conclusions

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Effects of privation are more reversible than Bowlby believed
  • The longer the period of privation the harder to reverse the effects
  • Loving relationships & high quality care are necessary to reverse privation effects
privation conclusions10
Privation - conclusions

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Research studies in this area suffer from many problems including:
    • Difficulty generalising from single cases or small samples
    • Difficulty separating effects of privation, abuse, malnutrition, other trauma or congenital abnormality