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Pile Foundations Module #9. Prepared by Dr. Randy R. Rapp July 2005. Site Investigation. Equipment: auger (hollow-stem), split-spoon sampler, Dutch cone Data sought and recorded. Types of Bearing. Friction piles In deposits with very deep bearing strata, perhaps minimal end-bearing

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pile foundations module 9

Pile FoundationsModule #9

Prepared by

Dr. Randy R. Rapp

July 2005

site investigation
Site Investigation
  • Equipment: auger (hollow-stem), split-spoon sampler, Dutch cone
  • Data sought and recorded

2005, Randy R. Rapp

types of bearing
Types of Bearing
  • Friction piles
    • In deposits with very deep bearing strata, perhaps minimal end-bearing
  • End-bearing piles
  • Compaction piles

2005, Randy R. Rapp

augering caissons
Augering Caissons

2005, Randy R. Rapp

pile types
Pile Types
  • Timber
    • Beware delivery and storage
  • Cast-in-place concrete
    • Cased
      • Pipe
      • Shell
      • Fluted
    • Uncased
    • “Wet” holes must be remediated

2005, Randy R. Rapp

pile types cont d
Pile Types (Cont’d)
  • Precast (typically prestressed)
    • Plant inspection may be required
    • Handling is critical: beware hard-to-see failures
  • Steel (H-pile)
    • Superior if splicing perhaps needed

2005, Randy R. Rapp

driving piles
Driving Piles
  • Match hammer, pile, cushions for efficiency
  • Impedance = ρ x c x A, potential capacity
  • Specified number of blows per inch driven indicates that capacity is achieved:
    • Wave equation analysis by instrumentation
    • Empirical formulas (dynamic behavior relates to static capacity?)

2005, Randy R. Rapp

driving piles cont d
Driving Piles (Cont’d)
  • Count blows per foot, until design blow count approached
  • Then count blows per inch until specification achieved
  • Underdriving is costly, but overdriving might cause irreparable damage to any pile type—very costly
  • Pile heave: neighboring piles, frost

2005, Randy R. Rapp

driving h piles for pile cap
Driving H-Piles for Pile Cap

2005, Randy R. Rapp

hammer types
Hammer Types
  • Hammers
    • Drop
    • Air
    • Steam
    • Diesel
    • Vibratory
  • Leads
    • Fixed: A-frame
    • Hanging or swinging

2005, Randy R. Rapp

pile load tests
Pile Load Tests
  • Load imparted to pile in gradual steps to twice design load, as settlement data recorded
  • Often, load removed in steps, too, to produce load-deflection curve, p. 228
  • Behavior
    • Elastic deformation
    • Buckling
    • Puncture
  • Ensure multiple deflection references, in case one is lost

2005, Randy R. Rapp

pile load test
Pile Load Test

2005, Randy R. Rapp

inspector duties
Inspector Duties
  • Review the hammer manual, if available
  • Be sure that the contractor is consistent:
    • Technique
    • Equipment settings
  • See pp. 241-44

2005, Randy R. Rapp

sheet piling
Sheet Piling
  • Differences from bearing piles
    • Subsurface flow cutoff
    • Soil retention
    • Alignment critical: interlock usually desired
  • Anchored bulkheads
  • Soil “nails”

2005, Randy R. Rapp