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Anatomy and Physiology I Unit 7: The Skeletal System

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Anatomy and Physiology I Unit 7: The Skeletal System. Physiology of the Skeletal System. Skeletal System. Bones are made of several tissues Primarily made of collagen and hydroxyapatite - Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 About 206 bones in the human body. Functions of Skeletal System.

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Anatomy and Physiology I

Unit 7: The Skeletal System

Physiology of the Skeletal System

skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Bones are made of several tissues
  • Primarily made of collagen and hydroxyapatite - Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
  • About 206 bones in the human body
functions of skeletal system
Functions of Skeletal System
  • SUPPORT: Hard framework that supports and anchors the soft organs of the body.
  • PROTECTION: Surrounds organs such as the brain and spinal cord.
  • MOVEMENT: Allows for muscle attachment therefore the bones are used as levers.
  • STORAGE: Minerals and lipids are stored within bone material.
  • BLOOD CELL FORMATION: The bone marrow is responsible for blood cell production.
parts of the skeletal system
Parts of the Skeletal System
  • Axial skeleton
    • Skull and bones that support it
    • Includes vertebra and ribs
    • 80 bones
  • Appendicular skeleton
    • Limbs
    • 126 bones

Features of a Long Bone:

Epiphysis: Ends of the bone.

Diaphysis: The shaft of the bone which surrounds the medullary cavity.

Articular Cartilage: Cushions the ends of the bones and allows for smooth movement.

Epiphyseal Plate:

Areas made of cartilage allowing for the growth of the bone.

  • Where bone meets bone
  • Ligament – holds bone to bone
  • Types of joints:
    • Immovable - skull
    • Ball-and-socket - shoulder
    • Hinge - knee
    • Pivot – forearm
    • Gliding - vertebrae
  • Cartilage covers ends of movable bones
    • Reduces friction
  • Lubricated by fluid from capillaries
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Periosteum – hard outer covering
    • Cells for growth and repair
  • Compact bone – hard strong layer
    • Bone cells, blood vessels, protein with Ca and P
  • Spongy bone – at ends of long bones
    • Has small open spaces to lighten weight
  • Marrow cavity – hollow in middle of long bones
bone marrow
Bone Marrow
  • Red marrow – produces blood cells and clotting factors
    • Found in humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis
    • Produces RBC 2 million per second
  • Yellow marrow – stores fat
    • Found in many bones
haversian system
Haversian System
  • Structure of compact bone
  • Rings of bone tissue with blood vessels and nerves in the center
bone development
Bone Development
  • Initial skeleton of cartilage in infants
  • Replaced with bone by osteoblasts
  • More than 300 bones at birth – fuse to 206
  • Always growing and breaking down
    • Osteoblasts – form new bone cells
    • Osteoclasts – break bone cells down
    • Osteocytes – mature bone cells
broken bones
Broken Bones
  • Fracture is a break of the bone
  • Simple or Complex fracture
  • Regrowth of bone:
    • Spongy bone forms in first few days
    • Blood vessels regrow and spongy bone hardens
    • Full healing takes 1-2 months

Homeostatic Imbalances


  • Disease of children due to a lack of vitamin D.
  • Calcium is not deposited in bones.
  • Bones become soft.
  • Bowing of the bones, and other deformities occur.

Homeostatic Imbalances


  • “Rickets” of adults.
  • Due to a lack of vitamin D.
  • Calcium is not deposited in the bones.
  • Bones become brittle.

Homeostatic Imbalances


  • Bone reabsorption is greater than bone deposition.
  • Due to any of the following:
  • Lack of estrogen in women.
  • Lack of exercise to stress the bones.
  • Inadequate intake of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Abnormalities of vitamin D metabolism.
  • Loss of muscle mass.
age related dysfunctions
Age Related Dysfunctions


Osteoarthritis- 90% of pop. By age 40

chronic inflammation of articular cartilage

can be normal age-dependent change

can also be pathology due to ?

Age-related changes

decrease blood supply



Decline in Bone Density

Bone Resorption > Bone Deposition

Increase Risk for Fracture

compression fractures of vertebrae

hip fractures

Role of calcium, vitamin D, estrogen, exercise

Calcitonin vs. Parathyroid Hormone