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Myriapoda and Hexapoda. Chapter 15. Characteristics. Enormously successful 750,000 species Many undescribed 75% of all living species. Characteristics. Insect dominance Waxy epicuticle Flight. Sub Phylum Myriapoda. Four Classes Two Body Tagmata Head Trunk Uniramous appendages

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characteristics
Characteristics
  • Enormously successful
  • 750,000 species
  • Many undescribed
  • 75% of all living species
characteristics3
Characteristics
  • Insect dominance
    • Waxy epicuticle
    • Flight
sub phylum myriapoda
Sub Phylum Myriapoda
  • Four Classes
  • Two Body Tagmata
    • Head
    • Trunk
    • Uniramous appendages
    • Terrestrial
class diplopoda
Class Diplopoda
  • Class Diplopoda
    • Millipedes
      • 11 to 100 trunk segments
      • 2 appendages per trunk segment
class diplopoda6
Class Diplopoda
  • Most are round in shape
  • Live all over the world
  • Low level of wax on epicuticle
class diplopoda7
Class Diplopoda
  • Eat dead and decaying plant material
  • Roll into a ball
    • Prevent desiccation
    • Defense
class diplopoda8
Class Diplopoda
  • Repugnatorial glands
    • Hydrogen Cyanide production
  • Gain appendages and segments as they molt
class chilopoda
Class Chilopoda
  • Class Chilopoda
    • Centipedes
      • Nocturnal
      • One pair of appendages per trunk segment
      • 15 or more segments
class chilopoda10
Class Chilopoda
  • Last pair of appendages are used for sensory
  • Flat body
  • Eat small arthropods, earthworms, and snails or frogs and rodents
class chilopoda11
Class Chilopoda
  • Poison claws are modified first appendages
  • Fast for their size
  • Large tropical species can kill humans
class pauropoda
Class Pauropoda
  • Class Pauropoda
    • Soft bodied animals
    • 11 segments
    • Feed on fungi and decaying plant matter
class symphyla
Class Symphyla
  • Class Symphyla
    • Three tagmata
    • No eyes
    • 12 segments with single pairs of legs
subphylum hexapoda
Subphylum Hexapoda
  • Two Classes
  • Three Tagmata
    • Five head appendages
    • Three pairs of legs on each thorax
class insecta
Class Insecta
  • Class Insecta
    • Most successful land animals
      • One pair of antenae
      • Wings
      • Three pairs of legs
class insecta16
Class Insecta
  • External Structure
    • Three tagmata
      • Head
        • Single pair of antennae
        • Compound eyes
        • Sometimes ocelli
class insecta17
Class Insecta
  • Thorax
    • Three segments - prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax
    • Wings with veins
class insecta18
Class Insecta
  • Abdomen
    • 10 to 11 segments
    • Lateral folds to allow for expansion
    • Spiracles
class insecta19
Class Insecta
  • Flight
    • Insects were the first animals to fly
    • Wings are thought to have come from protective coverings
class insecta20
Class Insecta
  • Direct or synchronous flight
    • Grasshopper, butterflies, and dragonflies
    • Muscles at the base of wings and on the exoskeleton
class insecta21
Class Insecta
  • Indirect or asynchronous flight
    • Flies and wasps
    • Muscles change the shape of the exoskeleton
      • Fibillar flight muscles
class insecta22
Class Insecta
  • Other Locomotion
    • Walk, swim, run, or jump
    • Cockroach reaches speeds of 5km/hr.
    • Fleas can jump 100 times their size
class insecta23
Class Insecta
  • Nutrition
    • Three segment gut
class insecta24
Class Insecta
  • Biting Mouthparts
    • Labrum – upper lip
      • Sensory
    • Mandible – Chewing (teeth)
    • Maxillae – cutting surface, sensory
    • Labrium – Sensory lower lip
    • Hypopharynx – tongue-like structure
      • Grasshoppers
class insecta25
Class Insecta
  • Sucking Mouthparts
    • Mosquitoes
class insecta26
Class Insecta
  • Sponging Mouthparts
    • Labellum – modified labium
    • Saliva is secreted
    • Mouth sponges up liquid
      • Flies
class insecta27
Class Insecta
  • Gas Exchange
    • Trachea open to spiracles
    • Store bicarbonate
    • Aquatic insects diffuse straight to water
class insecta28
Class Insecta
  • Circulation
    • Similar to other arthropods
    • Amoeboid cells
    • Ectotherms or heterotherms
      • Shivering Thermogenesis
class insecta29
Class Insecta
  • Nervous
    • Similar to annelids
    • Some can learn
    • Setae and mechanoreceptors
      • Johnston’s Organs
      • Tympanal Organs
class insecta30
Class Insecta
  • Excretion
    • Malphigian tubules
    • Uric acid
class insecta31
Class Insecta
  • Chemical regulation
    • Controls many functions
    • Pheromones
class insecta32
Class Insecta
  • Reproduction
    • Controlled by a number of factors
      • Food, photoperiod, population density, temperature, and humidity
    • Indirect fertilization
      • Silverfish and springtails
class insecta33
Class Insecta
  • Metamorphosis
          • Ametabolous metamorphosis
          • Hemimetabolous metamorphosis
          • Holometabolous metamorphosis
class insecta34
Class Insecta
  • Insect Behavior
    • Most innate
    • Social qualities
      • Castes
class insecta35
Class Insecta
  • Only 0.5% harmful to humans
  • 65% pollinate plants
  • Control qualities
  • Some parasitic
    • Lice, fleas