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Maximizing Your Educational Potential. Educational Innovation and Scholarship:. Constance Baldwin, Ph.D., University of Rochester Medical Center Latha Chandran, MD, MPH, MBBS, SUNY/Stonybrook. What we will do today. Definition of scholarship and its assessment

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maximizing your educational potential

Maximizing Your Educational Potential

Educational Innovation and Scholarship:

Constance Baldwin, Ph.D., University of Rochester Medical Center

Latha Chandran, MD, MPH, MBBS, SUNY/Stonybrook

what we will do today
What we will do today
  • Definition of scholarship and its assessment
  • Use of Educator Portfolios in academic institutions
  • Discussion of
    • Good teaching
    • Scholarly teaching
    • Educational scholarship
boyer s expanded definition of scholarship
Boyer’s Expanded Definition of Scholarship
  • Discovery:original research to acquire new knowledge, clarify how things work
    • E.g.: How do residents acquire problem solving skills in clinical situations?
    • Does faculty use of a direct observ/feedback checklist improve residents’ H&Ps?
  • Integration:seeking connections between disciplines, bridging creatively across research findings
    • E.g.: Does use of a computerized residency management program result in increased faculty feedback to residents?
boyer s expanded definition of scholarship4
Boyer’s Expanded Definition of Scholarship
  • Application:building bridges between theory and practice, using knowledge for practical purposes
    • E.g.: Does the use of an educator portfolio increase chances of promotion among clinician educators?
  • Teaching:communicating knowledge, making new discoveries accessible and meaningful outside a specialized domain
    • E.g.: Does a curriculum in communication skills enhance patient satisfaction?
glassick s six criteria for excellence in scholarship
Glassick’s Six Criteria for Excellence in Scholarship
  • Clear goals:stated purpose, realistic objectives, important questions
  • Adequate preparation:understanding of literature, appropriate skills, needed resources
  • Appropriate methods:methods match goals, effective use and flexible application of methods
glassick s six criteria for excellence in scholarship6
Glassick’s Six Criteria for Excellence in Scholarship
  • Significant results:goals are achieved, results are important, field is advanced
  • Effective presentation:presentation well organized, forums appropriate, message clear
  • Reflective critique:work critically evaluated, supported with good evidence, evaluation used to improve future studies
why is this important
Why is this important?
  • 315% increase in clinician educators in last twenty years
  • JHU- Clinician Educators were 69% less likely to hold a higher rank than basic scientists
  • Promotions committees unfamiliar with educational scholarship
  • No standardized way to assess scholarship in EPs
the educator portfolio
The Educator Portfolio

Key components:

  • Teaching andLearner Assessment
  • Curriculum Development
  • Advising/Mentoring
  • Educational Leadership and Administration
  • Other information: Awards, Journal reviewer

Key indicators of excellence:

  • Quality
  • Impact

Developmental and PromotionalEPs

cv vs ep
CV vs EP
  • CV mainly documents educational quantity: ifformat is modified to report educational activities systematically
  • EP shows quantity, quality and impact:creativity, innovation, evidence-based approach, strong learner outcomes, adoption of models by other programs
what we will do today10
What we will do today
  • Definition of scholarship and its assessment
  • Use of Educator Portfolios in academic institutions
  • Discussion of
    • Good teaching
    • Scholarly teaching
    • Educational scholarship
how is excellent teaching documented

How is excellent teachingdocumented?

What makes teaching excellent?

how is excellent teaching defined
How is Excellent Teaching Defined?
  • Quantity:Variety, volume, effort
  • Content:
    • Authenticity
    • Variety, Richness, and Depth
  • Quality:
    • Use of best practices and sound planning
    • Demonstrated excellence through
      • Direct observation (peers or experts)
      • Teaching evaluations by learners
      • Assessments of learners
    • Longterm outcomes of learners
    • Outcomes of patients
sound educational methods authenticity
Sound Educational Methods: Authenticity
  • As adult learners, residents want and need:
    • Real world learning opportunities
    • Learning with immediate applicability
    • Chances to apply theory to practice
    • Skills for life-long learning
  • In world of competency-based education, experiential learning in the practice setting is key to enhancing performance
sound educational methods variety
Sound Educational Methods: Variety
  • Create a balance of experiences to suit different learning styles and to use a variety of faculty teaching styles
  • Match methods to content:
    • Didactic: complex sets of facts and concepts
    • Interactive: more depth from multiple perspectives
    • Experiential: skills practiced in authentic settings
sound educational methods richness and depth
Sound Educational Methods: Richness and Depth

As adult learners, students and residents thrive on:

  • Self-directed learning with choices
  • Active learning in practical settings
  • Interactive enrichment
  • Flexible learning experiences that are adaptable to individual learner needs
  • Novelty: new approaches, new types of patients, new settings
sound educational methods good planning
Sound Educational Methods: Good Planning
  • Learning activities and evaluations based on written goals and specific objectives
  • Efficient use of learners’ time with flexible alternatives
  • Good use of faculty teaching strengths
  • Variety of learning settings
  • Faculty orientation and development
  • Integration of new experience with program as a whole
ep documenting teaching and learner assessment
EP: Documenting Teaching and Learner Assessment
  • Teaching:
    • Scope and impact
    • Creativity and innovation
    • Evidence-based approach
  • Quality of Teaching:
    • Direct observations by peers or experts
    • Evaluations by learners
    • Objectives-based assessments of learners
    • Long-term learner outcomes
    • Patient outcomes
small group exercise i
Small Group Exercise I
  • Use Teaching Activities Gridfrom the EP Template
  • Enter data into Teaching Activities Grid fora variety of activities
  • Review example of an ESP Scholar’s Teaching Activities Grid
  • Report of one key learning point
what is a scholarly approach to education

What is a scholarly approach to education?

How will a promotions committee know it when they see it?

what is a scholarly approach to teaching
What is a scholarly approach to teaching?
  • Application of sound principles and systematic planning
  • Use of “best practices” from literature or recognized experts
  • Self-analysis (reflective practice) to improve teaching or educational development
ex of scholarly approach learner assessment
Ex. of Scholarly Approach: Learner Assessment
  • Going beyond the conventions of one’s institution
  • Assessing learner needsbefore teaching
  • Evaluating attainment of learning objectives after teaching
  • Using authoritative sources for new methods
miller s triangle quality of learner assessments
Miller’s Triangle: Quality of Learner Assessments

[Miller, GE. Acad Med, 65(supp); Sept 1990]

Chart audit, portfolio, direct observ, pt outcomes


High fidelity simulations, OSCEs



Case presentations, low fidelity simulations



Multiple choice exams


Miller’s Triangle

ex of scholarly approach curriculum development
Ex. of Scholarly Approach: Curriculum Development
  • Structured planning (e.g, use of GNOME model)
  • Evaluation using “best practices”—(e.g., Kirkpatrick model for program evaluation)
  • Examples demonstrating innovation and educational quality
the gnome a linear model of curriculum development
The GNOME: A Linear Model of Curriculum Development

G = Goals

N = Needs

O = Objectives

M = Methods

E = Evaluation

small group exercise ii
Small Group Exercise II
  • Review Curriculum Development section from a sample EP
  • Discuss how toimprove the documentation
  • How would youadvise the scholarto use a more scholarly approach in the future?
  • Report onone key learning point
what is educational scholarship

What is educational scholarship

How is it done?

How is it demonstrated?

what is educational scholarship28
What is educational scholarship?
  • Scholarship goes beyond good teaching and a “scholarly approach”
  • It iseducational evaluation or research that fulfills the “3 Ps” criteria:
    • Publication
    • Peer review
    • Providing aplatformfor others to build upon
comparison of educational evaluation and research
Comparison of Educational Evaluation and Research

Educational evaluation

  • Looks within a program
  • Studies the effects of educational intervention
  • Purpose: improve program, report to stakeholders

Educational research

  • Looks beyond a particular program
  • Asks a question with broader relevance
  • Purpose: generalize findings about educational interventions to other programs

Can be quantitative or qualitative

educator portfolio key content
Educator Portfolio: Key Content
  • Teaching and Learner Assessment
  • Curriculum Development
  • Mentoring and Advising
  • Educational Leadership and Administration
  • Scholarship in all sections: “Countable” products
ep documentation of scholarship
EP: Documentation of Scholarship
  • Scholarly Productivity:
    • Peer rev publications (print or electronic)
    • Peer rev/Invited presentations and workshops
    • Non-peer-rev publications/presentations
    • Books
    • Educational Products
  • Grants:
    • PI or Co-PI
    • Number and $$$
    • Geographic impact (national > local)
examples of scholarship curriculum development
Examples of Scholarship: Curriculum Development
  • Peer reviewed presentations- local, regional, national
  • Peer reviewed publications or product approved by MedEdPORTAL
  • Evidence of impact: e.g., geographic dissemination, positive learner outcomes
strategies for enhancing your educational efforts
Strategies for Enhancing Your Educational Efforts
  • Expand your educational vision beyond precepting: Boyer’s model
  • Conduct educational activities systematically and critically: Glassick’s Six Criteria
  • Plan ways to demonstrate educational excellence:evaluations, products, models, presentations, publications
  • Participate in the community of educators (meetings, editorial reviews, workshops, presentations, publications)
summary of requirements for educ career advancement
Summary of Requirements for Educ Career Advancement
  • Documentation of educational productivity (~quantity)
  • Documentation of educational quality (teaching, scholarly approach)
  • Peer review of products and reports
  • Dissemination and adoption of educational products
  • Evidence of national reputation (via presentations, publications, collaborations)
how to make educational scholarship a part of your career
How to make educational scholarship a part of your career
  • Always ask questions, and seek answers to the best ones
  • Seek mentors/experts to help guide your scholarly work
  • Build productive collaborations: e.g., look across disciplines at your institution for people in similar roles, or look at other institutions for people in same role; take advantage of ready-made networks in professional organizations
  • Find out what others have done (read the literature, go to meetings, attend workshops, email colleagues with questions)
how to make educational scholarship a part of your career36
How to make educational scholarship a part of your career
  • Develop scholarship around your other responsibilities—multi-purpose your academic effort
  • Plan new teaching activities around current educational program structures to avoid political/scheduling challenges
  • Seek stakeholders to support your effort (look up, down and across)
  • Be the solution, not the problem—find opportunities in challenges faced by your institution
how to make educational scholarship a part of your career37
How to make educational scholarship a part of your career
  • Passit forward: share your knowledge and expertise among your peer educators locally and nationally
  • Build your work—and actively document it—around the 3 hallmarks of scholarship:
    • Public dissemination
    • Peer review
    • Providing a Platform for others to build on