Learning about People in New Hampshire through Many Eyes Exit Overview Click on a colored marker on the floor plan and you will learn about… Yellow : the person portrayed at that location in the exhibit Green : a person prominent in the exhibit at that location, but not depicted
inNew Hampshirethrough Many Eyes
Passaconaway (ca. 1575–1665) was the leader of the Pennacook Confederacy that dominated much of what is today southern New Hampshire.Counseling peace with the English immigrants, Passaconaway ceded much of his land to the English in 1629 but petitioned the Massachusetts court for a tract of land along the Merrimack River. Though he was granted the land in 1662, the same land was re-granted to white settlers seven years later.
Captain John Locke (1627–1696) of Rye was ambushed by eight Abenaki Indians on August 26, 1696, and shot with his own gun, which he had left lying against a nearby rock while he worked in his field.
As his slayer approached to scalp him, the dying man cut off the Indian’s nose with the sickle he had been using.
The sickle passed through generations of Lockes to great grandson William (seen in silhouette) and to his grandson George (pictured). George Locke presented the sickle to the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1890.Captain John Locke
Susanna Johnson (ca. 1729-1810) and her family were captured by Abenakis during an attack on the fort at No. 4 (Charlestown) in 1754. Pregnant with child, Susanna went into labor on the forced march to Canada. Her captors made a small bed for her in the woods where she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth Captive – her fourth child. A day later, Susanna was forced to continue her journey.
Eventually, the Johnson family was ransomed and returned to Charlestown. Susanna became a tavern keeper after the death of her husband. Eventually, she remarried and bore another seven children.
Believing that English schooling was the key to “civilizing” Indians, the Reverend Eleazar Wheelock (1711-1779) devoted 25 years to this mission. In 1769, he moved his Indian Charity School to Hanover where it became known as Dartmouth College. Wheelock enrolled white students at the college to serve as models for their Indian classmates and to train as missionaries. Wheelock had discovered that former Indian students, many of whom never graduated, could not be depended upon to instruct their Indian brethren. Half of them “returned to the vices of savage life” after their studies.
The Reverend Samson Occum (1723-1792), an Indian student of the Reverend Wheelock, tried to help his mentor raise money in America and Britain for Hanover’s new Indian school. To his dismay, however, very few of the first students were Indian – only ¼ of the graduating class of 1770.
Robert Rogers (1731–1795) grew up in the frontier near Concord. He led an elite corps of soldiers — Rogers’ Rangers — that roamed the frontier fighting Indians in service of the British Army.
This 1776 mezzotint published by Thomas Hart is titled Major Robert Rogers, Commander in Chief of the Indians in the Back Settlements of America. In the mezzotint, Rogers wears an Indian-made sash.Robert Rogers
The Reverend John Wheelwright (ca. 1592–1679) moved to Massachusetts in 1630 and worked as a minister. His support of dissenter Anne Hutchinson and his marriage to Anne’s sister, Mary, led to his banishment from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, he and his family and followers settled in what is now Exeter, N.H.
In 1741, Benning Wentworth (1699–1770) became New Hampshire’s first royal governor to be independent of Massachusetts. During his 26 years in office, Wentworth established towns not only throughout New Hampshire, but in present-day Vermont as well.
This painting by Joseph Blackburn depicts the governor in 1760.
Three generations of the Jaffrey family served the provincial government seated in Portsmouth:
Not Shown HereGeorge Jaffrey I (1638–1707), a Scotsman, settled in New Castle. A successful merchant, Jaffrey served as speaker of the Assembly and member of the King’s Council.
George Jaffrey II (1683–1749) of Portsmouth built on this father’s fortune as a merchant and real estate investor. From 1726 to 1749 he was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Jaffrey’s wife, Sarah Wentworth MacPhaedris (1702–1798), was Royal Governor Sir John Wentworth’s aunt.
Shown HereGeorge Jaffrey III (1717–1801), like his forebears, was a governor’s councilor. Also, like his father, he was the provincial treasurer. Jaffrey’s wife, Lucy Winthrop (1721–1776), suffered the embarrassment of having brothers who sided with the rebel cause against English rule.The Jaffrey Family
Sir John Wentworth (1737–1820) was New Hampshire’s last royal governor. An energetic leader who encouraged the exploration of the wilderness, road construction, and the establishment of Dartmouth College, Governor Wentworth was well liked personally, but his loyalty to the crown forced him to leave the province in 1775.
John Sullivan (1740–1795), led the attack on Fort William and Mary that presaged the Revolutionary War. He served as a delegate to the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses and carried the rank of major general in the war. Later he served as president — now known as governor — of the new state.
John Stark (1728–1822) was a farm boy who led expeditions into the New Hampshire wilderness. He fought in the French and Indian War and led men in the Revolution, most notably at the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Battle of Bennington.
Making a toast at a veterans’ banquet in 1809, the elderly general uttered the phrase that has become the state’s motto: Live free or die.
General Jonathan Chase (1743–1800) was a storekeeper, tavern owner, miller, surveyor — and military leader at Ticonderoga and Saratoga. He and his wife Sarah were among the first settlers of Cornish where he headed the corporation to build the Cornish–Windsor bridge.(The portrait was painted in 1790.)
Sarah Hall Chase (1742–1806) ran the family tavern in Cornish and raised six children while her husband was at war. She also served the revolutionary cause by guarding arms and ammunition for the patriots.(The portrait was painted in 1790.)
James Fogg Langdon (1804–1887) was a stage driver in central New Hampshire. This “knight of the whip” managed reins of six to eight horses and entertained his passengers with stories and flourishes on his long tin horn.The portrait was painted in Plymouth, c. 1830.
Jefferson Small (1802–1872) of Goffstown ran a grist mill. Such mills, along with the saw and fulling mills that were usually nearby, provided a rural preview of the industrialization that would transform New Hampshire’s countryside by 1900.
Charles Treadwell’s portrait (ca. 1845) is unusual in that the subject is shown in work rather than dress clothes.
Hannah Davis (1784-1863) of East Jaffrey was the daughter of a wooden-movement clockmaker and the granddaughter of a carpenter and millwright. Orphaned at a young age, she began producing wooden band boxes decorated with wallpaper and lined with newspaper. She invented a foot-powered machine to slice the logs and selected her own spruce and pine for sides and bottoms, respectively, nailed while the wood was green. The boxes varied considerably in size and were used by mill girls for luggage, trinkets, and bonnets. Hannah marketed the boxes herself, traveling to the factory towns of New Hampshire and Massachusetts in a covered wagon or sleigh with a rented horse.
Rural families helped sustain themselves by sending sons and daughters —especially daughters — to sometimes distant mill towns where they could work for periods ranging from a few months to several years. Such mobility provided new opportunities for social relationships that, when challenged, could lead to group solidarity.
One of the first American strikes, for example, took place among women workers in 1827 at Dover’s Cocheco Manufacturing Company. When the company introduced new rules regulating talking, visiting, smoking, and lateness, three to four hundred workers protested.
The Hutchinsons of Milford were the first organized singing family in America. They traveled the country from the 1840s well into the 1880s, their songs promoting a variety of popular reforms including women’s suffrage, abolition, and temperance. One of their most popular songs, “Tenting Tonight,” was composed by New Hampshire neighbor Walter Kittredge of Reed’s Ferry.
Nathan Marcel Gove (b. 1849) was only eleven when he enlisted as a drummer boy for the 3rd Regiment of N.H. Volunteers. He served with the band at Hilton Head, S.C., between 1862 and 1863. The band’s last performance relating to the Civil War was in 1865 at Fort Sumter as part of the celebration of the restoration of the American flag. The band continues today in Gove’s home town of Concord as the Nevers’ Second Regiment Band.”
Born in Hillsboro, Franklin Pierce (1804–1869) became the 14th president of the U.S., the only president to come from New Hampshire. His presidency followed a career as lawyer, U.S. representative, senator, and brigadier general in the Mexican War.
Of Franco-American heritage, Marie Grace de Repentigny (1924-1964) is better known to us as Grace Metalious. She was born in a working-class neighborhood in Manchester, but after her marriage to George Metalious, moved to the small town of Gilmanton.
Grace Metalious burst the pastoral image of small-town life in her best-selling 1956 novel Peyton Place. Its record-breaking book sales led to the 1957 blockbuster movie and a long-running television series. Even today, long after her death, Metalious’s name excites strong feelings in Gilmanton, thought by many to be the real-life Peyton Place.Grace Metalious
Left with five children to raise after her husband’s sudden death in 1822, Sarah Josepha Buell Hale (1788-1879) began her career as a writer and editor. In 1823, she published The Genius of Oblivion; in 1827, Northwood, and in 1830, Poems for Children, which included the timeless “Mary’s Lamb.” Hale moved to Boston where she edited the American Ladies’ Magazine and later to Philadelphia as editor of Godey’s Ladies’ Book. Hale championed educational opportunities for women. During her life, she launched campaigns to fund the Bunker Hill monument, to establish Thanksgiving Day as a national holiday, and to make Washington’s home, Mount Vernon, a national shrine.
Frank Jones (1832–1902), an entrepreneur from Barrington, went to Portsmouth to peddle goods at age 17. With the power to perceive opportunity and the courage to make the most of it, he acquired a large interest in a brewery that became the Frank Jones Brewing Co.
An aggressive empire builder, Jones subsequently procured a shoe factory, a machine shop, and a button factory, among other things. Influential in politics and public spirited, Jones was a generous benefactor for Portsmouth’s development.
Robert Frost (1874-1963) moved to New England as a boy and in 1900, settled on a farm in Derry. Frost wrote of New England and New Englanders in metaphors that evoke for many readers the essence of New Hampshire life.
Levi Woodbury (1789–1851) was born in Salem and lived most of his life in Portsmouth. A leader of the “Jacksonian Democrats,” Woodbury served as a state representative and senator, governor, associate justice of the state supreme court, and as a U.S. senator. He held two national cabinet posts and in 1846 became Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
A strong believer in “democratic government run by educated people,” he supported free public education and teacher training, more education for women, and more adult education in agriculture, science, and philosophy.
Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910) was born in Bow. In 1866, she fell on an icy sidewalk and suffered serious internal injuries. She recovered, miraculously, she believed, after reading a scriptural account on healing. After recovering, she devoted the next three years to study of the Bible. In 1875, she published Science and Health; in 1876, she established the Christian Science Association and in 1878, her religion.
The son of a Salisbury farmer, Daniel Webster (1782–1853) attended Phillips Exeter Academy and Dartmouth College. He practiced law in Portsmouth. After representing the state in the U.S. Congress from 1813–1817, Webster became one of the leading attorneys of his day and is best known for winning the 1819 case in which he defended Dartmouth College from attempted takeover by the state of New Hampshire. Later, 1n 1842, as secretary of state, he secured the Webster-Ashburton treaty settling once and for all the boundary disputes between the United States and Canada — including New Hampshire’s northern border.
Henry Clay Blinn (1824–1905) moved to Canterbury when he was 14 because the Shakers there offered him an education and a future. Blinn developed skills as a master printer, teacher, stonecutter, tailor, dentist, beekeeper, and cabinetmaker. He became an administrator and spiritual leader, not only of Canterbury Shakers, but also of communities in Enfield, N.H., New York, Ohio, and Kentucky. He was an author, historian, and for 17 years, the editor of the Shakers’ official monthly journal.
Bertha Lindsay (1897–1990), the last eldress of Canterbury’s Shaker community, came to the village as an orphan in 1905. Raised and educated there, Lindsay, at the age of 21, chose to stay with the Shakers and took vows of celibacy, simple living, and pacifism. She cooked, made Shaker poplar baskets, taught girls manners and fancywork, and, in the 1960s, helped organize the museum at the village.
Born in Franklin, Philias Napoleon Dubuc (1894–1959) grew up in Pittsfield. Like many of Canadian ancestry, he worked in the textile industry. Seeking to improve himself, Dubuc moved from mill to mill, not only in Pittsfield, Suncook, and Manchester, but also elsewhere in New England and Quebec. He began as a bobbin-boy and loom fixer, but with the help of correspondence school courses, he advanced to weaver, overseer, and superintendent. During World War I, Dubuc served in France as a translator for Army intelligence. In World War II he inspected textiles for the government. At the end of his working life, he was an elevator operator and salesman for Leavitt’s Department Store in Manchester.
Celia Thaxter (1835–1894) was born at Portsmouth, but she was raised on the Isles of Shoals, where she spent the happiest times of her adult life and where she died and was buried.
A multi-talented woman, Celia Thaxter was an essayist and poet, a painter of tiles and china, an expert on gardening and birds, and — not least — an accomplished hostess. Among her guests were many of the literary and artistic celebrities of her day, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and John Greenleaf Whittier. In 1892, one of her guests, artist Childe Hassam, rendered this painting of Celia Thaxter in her garden.
The 1891 painting by Anna Klumpke depicts Mrs. Coolidge with her son J.R. in Paris. Later, Mrs. Coolidge adopted the community of Center Sandwich and established Sandwich Home Industries, a cooperative store, tearoom, and program of craft classes.In 1931, she headed a commission formed by Governor John Winant to consider the efficacy of a statewide organization for promoting crafts. The result was the League of New Hampshire Arts and Crafts.
As president and publisher of the Union Leader Corporation, William Loeb (1905–1981) long held an important place in N.H. politics. Loeb’s unrelenting opposition to state sales or income taxes in the newspapers he oversaw led many politicians to “take the pledge” against broad-based taxes. Fiery editorials could spell success of failure for candidates running for office — especially in the state’s first-in-the-nation presidential primaries.
Hannah Dustin (1657–ca. 1736) and her infant son were captured by raiding Abenakis from their Haverhill, Massachusetts, home in 1697, and marched northward. Soon, the Indians killed the infant before the horrified mother’s eyes.
Later, while spending a night on an island at the junction of the Merrimack and Contoocook rivers, Hannah Dustin and two other captives killed and scalped their ten sleeping captors and escaped.
After her return to Haverhill, Hannah Dustin was rewarded for her bravery. According to Dustin family tradition, this tankard was one of the gifts she received.
Abenakis attacked the town of Salisbury in 1754 and took Nathaniel Meloon, his wife, and three children captive — including nine year-old Rachel (ca. 1745–1798). Four years and seven months after their march to Canada, the husband, wife, and younger son were ransomed and returned home.
In 1763, after spending nine years living with Abenakis, their daughter Rachel reluctantly returned home to New Hampshire. Rachel wove this porcupine quill belt for Peter Kimball of Boscawen after her return from Canada. The belt features English, Abenaki, and French imagery on an Abenaki background.
According to tradition, Kimball wore the belt while fighting in the Battle of Bennington in 1777.Rachel Meloon
In 1720, James and Elizabeth Wilson left northern Ireland to come to New Hampshire where many Scotch-Irish were settling. While aboard the ship Wolf, Elizabeth gave birth to a daughter.
About 1/3 of the way across the ocean, pirates attacked and captured the ship. When he realized there was an infant aboard, the pirate captain decided not to harm the passengers. In return for their safety, he asked that the baby be named Mary for his wife. He handed the baby’s mother a bolt of silk, itself possibly booty from a merchant vessel. When Ocean-born Mary married James Wallace in 1742, she wore a dress made from the pirate’s gift. Mary Wilson Wallace died in 1814.
The rendering here is from the cover page of Olive Tardiff’s account of Ocean-born Mary in They Paved the Way (Heritage, 1980).Ocean-born Mary Wilson Wallace
As the displayed tools of the trade show, Samuel Lane (1718–1806), of Stratham, was a surveyor — an important occupation in New Hampshire’s period of rapid growth during the middle and late 1700s. But like many of the time, Lane performed a variety of tasks to provide for his family’s well being. Initially apprenticed to his father who taught him how to make shoes, Lane observed that much of his father’s costs were bound up in buying leather. He took it upon himself to learn this trade from a local tanner in exchange for young Lane teaching him the rudiments of surveying, which Samuel was then himself also studying.
When Lane struck out on his own, he practiced all these trades. In addition, of course, he ran his own farm. Lane is most remarkable in that he kept a meticulous journal for over sixty years. His writings provide us a detailed look at everyday village life.
Sent from Africa’s Gold Coast by his father to be educated abroad, Prince was instead sold into slavery and bought by General William Whipple of Portsmouth, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Prince distinguished himself by joining with other slave leaders to petition the New Hampshire legislature for their emancipation. He also fought in the Revolutionary War and, according to stories, was with General Washington as he crossed the Delaware River.
After the war, General Whipple freed Prince. The former slave and his wife Dinah (m. 1781) resided on a parcel of land granted for their use by the Whipple family. Prince Whipple died in 1797.
Villagers of Bedford whose belongings are highlighted in the exhibition include …
Mary Patten (1683–1764) and her son Matthew (1719–1795; John Dunlap (1746–1792), who made the highboy shown here; and Jane Walker (1759–1848).
Descendants of “Spinning Wheel Thomas” Aiken of Londonderry and Deering, the Aiken family of Franklin appear to have inherited their Scotch-Irish ancestor’s ingenuity in producing textile machinery. Jonas Bradley Aiken (1833-1903) developed further the idea of his father and brother, patenting this circular knitting machine for home use in 1855.
The latch needles used in the knitting machine had been developed by Walter Aiken (1831-1893), Jonas’s older brother, who manufactured an industrial knitting machine used in hosiery mills throughout the country. The Aiken family enterprise established the Franklin area as a major center for producing knitting machines and needles. At first, machine-produced stockings required finishing by hand, giving employment to rural outworkers in the Lakes region.
J.B. Aiken also patented a shower bath that required hand-filling with heated water.J.B. Aiken and the Aiken Family
John Badger Bachelder (1825–1894), a native of Gilmanton, researched and designed this painting, which he then commissioned James Walker to complete. Bachelder became the leading authority on the battle shown in this painting: The Repulse of Longstreet’s Assault at the Battle of Gettysburg. He arrived on the field immediately after the fighting and found debris scattered for miles and many of the dead still unburied. After 84 days sketching the battlefield, Bachelder devoted two months to interviewing Confederate prisoners recuperating in the hospital and then met with commanders of the Union Army.
Said to be the most accurate depiction of the battle, the key shown here points to specific locations of units engaged in the battle and in some cases even to particular individuals.
Walter Kittredge (1834–1905), nicknamed the “minstrel of the Merrimack,” traveled and performed with the Hutchinson Family singers. He is best known for his composition “Tenting on the Old Camp Ground,” a song the Hutchinsons made famous.
According to tradition, Kittredge wrote the piece in 1863 during his last evening at home before traveling to Concord where he was to be mustered into the army as a new draftee.
The song was an immediate success in both the North and the South and continued to be popular even after the war was over.
People of the Dawnland
• What was Native American life like at the time of contact with Europeans?
• What trade developed between Indians and Europeans?
• How and why did conflict arise between Indians and European settlers?
Colonial Days and the American Revolution
• Who came to New Hampshire? How and why did they come, and what did they bring with them?
• How did the economy of New Hampshire function and how did individuals fit into it?
• What part did New Hampshire residents play in the Revolutionary War?
Rural New Hampshire
What was country life like in New Hampshire of the late 1800s and early 1900s?
What did the Concord Coach mean to travel and industry in New Hampshire — and throughout the country?
The Old Granite State
People at Work: early industry in New Hampshire
Powered by Nature: large-scale industry in New Hampshire
Luminaries and Leaders: selected New Hampshire people of the 19th and 20th centuries
Yankee Ingenuity: enterprise and inventiveness in New Hampshire
Arts and Crafts: arts and crafts and the reaction against industrialism in New Hampshire
Hard Times: World War I and II and the Depression through the experience of Philias Dubuc
© 2006 Christopher MacLeod for the New Hampshire Historical Society