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Laboratory & Research Safety

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  1. Laboratory & Research Safety Russell Vernon, Ph.D. Laboratory / Research Safety & Integrated Waste Manager University of California, Riverside 951-827-5119, russell.vernon@ucr.edu

  2. Agenda • Research & Teaching  Synergy (Whole greater than sum of parts) • Involves chemicals, infectious agents, animals, plants, people, radioactive hazards, machines, lasers, etc… • and People • Labs are different… • Hazard Communication & Laboratory Standard • Employees vs. volunteers & students • Field Work & Safety • Teaching • Research • ISEM – core functions • Five Steps

  3. Synergy Research & Teaching

  4. Synergy – Research & Teaching • 90 % communication • Why do students go to college? • What motivates graduate students? • Why are Faculty here? • What motivates faculty & staff? • 10 % information • Ah the hazards: • Health & physicals hazards • Chemical, Physical, Biological, Radioactive…

  5. University Mission • Teaching • Research • Public Service • Research, Grants & Publications • Teaching • Public Service

  6. Lab/Research Community Safety Involves & relies on TeachingLaboratories LaboratoryResearch FieldResearch Radiation & Bio Safety Officers Chemical Hygiene Officer Fire Prevention, Building Design & Maintenance, Industrial Hygienists etc.

  7. Air Pollution Research Center R Anthropology TRF Biochemistry TR Bioengineering TR Biology TRF Biomedical Sciences TR Botany & Plant Sciences TRF Cell Biology T Chemical Engineering T Chemistry TR CE-CERT RF Center for Conservation Biology RF Cell Biology & Neurosciences TR Earth & Planetary Sciences TRF Electrical Engineering TR Entomology TRF Environmental Engineering T Chemical & EnvironmentalEngineering TRF Environmental ScienceTRF Environmental ToxicologyT Inst Geophysics Planetary PhysicsR MS&E TR Mechanical Engineering TR Nematology TRF Neuroscience T Plant Pathology & Microbiology TRF Physics and Astronomy TRF Psychology RF Soil and Water Science TRF Education Abroad F Sociology F Departments Involved(UCR Example) T = Teaching Labs R = Research Labs F = Field Work

  8. Community Metrics The normally the most hazardous activity • Throughout US and several foreign countries • Thousands of trips UC-wide • Unknown number field trips annually(at least > 200 at UCR alone) Fieldwork

  9. Grants $/Assignable Square Foot

  10. Specialization • Programs Craig Maxwell Laboratory Safety Inspections Chemical & Laboratory Safety Laboratory & Research Safety Radiation Safety Brenda Wong Laboratory Design Safety Biological Safety Agricultural, Field, Marine Safety

  11. Specialized areaChemical & Laboratory Safety • Chemical Hygiene Plan • Exposure Assessment • Standard Operating Procedures • Nanomaterial safety • High hazard materials safety • Laboratory ergonomics • Departmental Contacts • Campus Policymakers • Chemical safety & fire code segregation

  12. Synergy – hazards are just tools • Researchers select to use chemicals based upon project needs, familiarization & level of effort required • Chemical Hazard Types • Health & physical hazards (OSHA) • Laboratory Standard only applies to health hazards • Chemicals, biohazards, radioactives • Obvious overlap exists

  13. Health Hazards - Chemicals • “statistically significant evidence” that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees • carcinogens • toxic or highly toxic agents • reproductive toxins • irritants • corrosives • sensitizers • hepatotoxins • nephrotoxins • neurotoxins • hematopoietic damaging agents • anything that damages • lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes

  14. Physical Hazards - Chemicals “scientifically valid evidence” it is • combustible liquid • compressed gas • explosive • flammable • organic peroxide • oxidizer • pyrophoric • unstable (reactive) • water-reactive

  15. Chemical Hazard Classes • Corrosives • Flammables • Oxidizers • Toxins • Reactive Chemicals

  16. Labs are different…

  17. Labs are Different • Cal/OSHA Lab Standard • OSHA & Cal/OSHA Lab Standard are essentially identical • www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5191.html • EPA Academic Lab Rule • Not yet adopted by California • Flexibility afforded academic laboratories: • delay in making waste determinations, longer accumulation times, labeling simplified, encourages lab cleanouts – useful for small quantity generators • www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/generation/labwaste

  18. Cal/OSHA Laboratory Standard • Occupational regulations for labs that uses chemicals is the “Laboratory Standard” • Requires: • Employer limit exposure • www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5155table_ac1.html • Initial and periodic exposure monitoring • Written Chemical Hygiene Plan • Capable of protecting employees from health hazards • Capable of keeping exposures below the limits • Readily available to employees

  19. Lab Standard Requires • Standard operating procedures • Criteria determine & implement controls • Fume hoods shall function properly • Employees shall be trained • Circumstances requiring prior approval • Medical consultation and examinations • Chemical Hygiene officer & Committee

  20. Particularly Hazardous Materials • Special provisions required for: • Select carcinogens • Reproductive toxins • Highly acute toxic substances • Establishment of a designated area • Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or glove boxes • Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste • Decontamination procedures

  21. Issues with Compliance • Who is responsible? • Who is the ‘Employer?’ • Who is doing the work? • Who is the supervisor? Is there a “supervisor”? • Who’s going to pay? • Fines • Controls & protection (engineering through PPE) • Exposure monitoring (initial & periodic) • Written documents • Signs • Equipment

  22. Hazard Controls • OSHA hierarchy of controls • Engineering controls • Work practices • Administrative controls • Personal protective equipment (PPE) Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  23. Engineering Controls • Local Exhaust Ventilation • Fume hoods • Snorkels • Down-drafttables • Glove boxes • Biosafety cabinets Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  24. …..Exhaust Sash …. Bypass Grill…. Fresh Air….. …..Baffles Airfoil….. Fume Hoods Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  25. Fume Hood Function & Failure • Function • Draw air contaminants away from operator • Sweep breathing zone with clean air • Impediments to proper operation • Do not use front 6 inches • Do not block air flow - slots Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  26. On-line Training from UCB • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4AHxLnByts Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  27. Biological Safety Cabinets • BSCs are designed to provide both a clean work environment and protection for the user • BSCs use airflow to create a barrier to airborne particles, such as microorganisms • BSCs use High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to clean air going into the work area and out to the environment Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  28. BioSafety Cabinet (Class IIB2) http://oregonstate.edu/ehs/LVSG-BSC-type

  29. Clean Benches(a.k.a. Tissue culture hoods) • Laminar Flow toward Contamination Source (operator) • NO operator protection • Protects sample & work • DO NOT USE for hazardous material Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  30. Work Practices • Education • Hazard recognition and control methods. • Training • Proper techniques; emergency response & drills • Supervision - good safety performance • Housekeeping • Personal hygiene Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  31. Administrative Controls • Worker exposure • Initial placement, worker rotation for some hazards. • Medical • Surveillance and immunization. • Hazard Identification • Signs - notifications, etc. Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  32. Personal Protective Equipment The Strategy of Last Resort • Respiratory Protection • Eye, Face, Hand, Foot • Protective Clothing • Hearing • Head Protection • Barrier creams Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  33. The Failure of a Glove Karen Wetterhan at Dartmouth • www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/home/tribute/karen.html • www.dartmouth.edu/~ehs/hazard_wetterhahn.html Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  34. Glove SelectionChemical Compatibility • http://www.ehs.okstate.edu/hazmat/gloves.htm • www.northsafety.com • http://www.showabestglove.com/site/chemrest/ • www.ansell-edmont.com/download/Ansell_7thEditionChemicalResistanceGuide.pdf Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009

  35. Example

  36. Safety Audits& Inspections Regulatory Scope • Labs inspected for compliance with • California Fire Code • Cal/OSHA Lab Standard • Chemical Hygiene Plan • Hazardous, Medical and Radioactive Waste • Labeling, Storage & Segregation • Radioactive isotope use • Biohazardous materials use • Electrical Code

  37. Audit Process Options • Contact department and/or lab representative • Schedule audits for that dept/lab • Occupants present • Yes – can ask more – takes longer – better result • No – limited to physical conditions only • Paper or paperless process • Time to inspect, time to create reports • Consistency between auditors & inspections • Automating report creations, summary reports • $, FTE, expertise, priorities, accountability

  38. Specialized area Biological Safety Human pathogens • BSC Certification Oversight • Biosafety Risk Assessments • Biosafety Audits • Bloodborne Pathogen • Exposure Control Plan • IBC (BUAs, Select Agents, rDNA) • Biosafety Level 3 Facilities Public Health • Biological Spill Response • Communicable diseases Plant & animal pathogens Medical Research • Medical Waste Management Plan • Medical Waste Treatment Permit • Autoclave validation • Containment & labeling Animal (vertebrates) • IACUC • Animal Use Authorizations • Vivarium (Consultation, Inspection, AAALAC) • Insects, arthropod Invertebrate research • Nematodes, Insects, arthropods

  39. Specialized area Radiation Safety Radioactive Use Authorizations • Inspection • Delivery Radiation exposure monitoring • Surveys • Dosimetry Radiation Producing Machines • Irradiator Security • Equipment Clearance Non-ionizing • Laser Safety • Registration 3b & 4 • Microwaves • UV • Strong Magnetic Fields Training • Initial • Refresher Radiation Safety Committee • Broad scope license • Enforcement

  40. Laser use • Class 3B & 4 Lasers are hazardous • Pulsed beam concentrates greater amounts of energy than continuous wave of the same average wattage. • “Nothing Leaves the Table”

  41. Curtain that burned Laser

  42. Synergy – hazards are just tools • Check out the BioBrick Contest • MIT & UCSF • Using BioBrick™ standard biological parts, a synthetic biologist or biological engineer can, to some extent, program living organisms like a computer scientist can program a computer • http://bbf.openwetware.org

  43. Registry of Standard Biological Parts Biosynthesis: Parts involved in the production or degradation of chemicals and metabolites are listed here Cell-cell signaling and quorum sensing: Parts involved in intercellular signaling and quorum sensing between bacteria Cell death: Parts involved in killing cells Coliroid: Parts involved in taking a bacterial photograph Conjugation: Parts involved in DNA conjugation between bacteria Motility and chemotaxis: Parts involved in motility or chemotaxis of cells Odor production and sensing: Parts the produce or sense odorants DNA recombination: Parts involved in DNA recombination

  44. Field Work & Safety

  45. Travel Safety Plus… • https://www.uctrips-insurance.org • Field Safety Plans • Transportation • People; Samples, Materials, Supplies, Equipment; and Hazardous Materials • Medical Considerations • Security • Communications • Activities: • Before, while there, when you get back

  46. Pierce's Disease • Bacterial infection (Xylella fastidiosa) • spread by bugs that feed on grapevines • glassy winged sharpshooter • Infected grapevines die

  47. http://www.ehs.ucr.edu/forms/laboratorysafetydesign.pdf Safe Laboratory Design

  48. UC Laboratory Safety Design Guide • General Requirements for Laboratories • Electrical Safety • Laboratory Ventilation and Fume Hoods • Emergency Eyewash and Safety Shower Equipment • Pressure Vessel Components and Systems and Compressed Gas Cylinders • Hazardous Materials Storage Cabinets • Biosafety Laboratories • Additional Requirements for Radioactive Material Laboratories • Additional Requirements for Laboratories with Irradiators and/or Radiation-Producing Machines • Additional Requirements for Laboratories Using Non-Ionizing Radiation Sources, Including Lasers • Ergonomics Design and Laboratory Spaces

  49. Timely Issues • U.S. Green Building Council • www.usgbc.org • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System™ (LEED) • Labs 21 • www.labs21century.gov • International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories • www.i2sl.org

  50. Sustainable design… • Heated and cooled air flowing takes energy • Laboratories have ‘single pass’, non-recirculated air to minimize • personnel exposure and • concentration of flammable vapors • Standard Practice a decade ago was 6 to 12 air changes per hour • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers changed guidelines • International Building Codes are being adopted