japan l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Japan PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Japan

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Japan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 354 Views
  • Uploaded on

Japan Stella Theodoulou Japan Second world industrial power (after the US) Stable but new democracy (after WWII) Liberal and modern, but Non-Western Ancient-history 6 th century: One clan centralizes power over many (warrior) tribes, and imposes emperor Jimmu.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Japan' - omer


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
japan

Japan

Stella Theodoulou

japan2
Japan
  • Second world industrial power (after the US)
  • Stable but new democracy (after WWII)
  • Liberal and modern, but Non-Western
ancient history
Ancient-history
  • 6th century:
    • One clan centralizes power over many (warrior) tribes, and imposes emperor Jimmu.
    • Confucianism and Buddhism arrive from China, and superimpose to the local Shinto faith--syncreticism.
  • Development of a traditional feudal society (with lords, samurai—hereditary warriors, continuos wars, serfs).
  • Aislationism: in the 17th century, Christianity was forbidden, as well as Japanese ships to leave Japan.
freeing trade
Freeing Trade
  • In 1853, American Commodore Perry brought to Japan a message from the American President asking the Japanese to open the country to foreign trade.
    • The Japanese were forced to sign a treaty on trade...
    • And many other treaties from that on (on how to treat foreigners legally, as well as on tariffs)
from empire to dictatorship to liberal democracy
From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy
  • 1868-1911 Meiji Period
  • 1889 Imperial (Meiji) Constitution (the Diet was in place, but the Emperor and the samurai concentrated power and chose the Prime Minister).
  • (Victorious) wars with China (1894/5) and Russia (1904/5): Japan acquired Taiwan and a part of Manchuria. Korea was incorporated in 1910, and the military gained power and prestige.
  • 1918: A commoner is elected as the Prime Minister for the first time, representing the Constitutional Party (created since the 1880s)
from empire to dictatorship to liberal democracy6
From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy

Taisho Democracy:

  • 1925, universal (male) suffrage and democratization of the lower house, but... Clause confirming the Emperor’s sovereignty.
  • 1930s: rise of militarism as a consequence of the economic crisis. Puppet civilian government—Expansionism—WAR (1937 with China)
  • 1940, Alliance with Italy and Germany
  • December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbour
  • August 1945, use of atomic bombs by the US
  • Japanese surrender and acceptance of Postdam.
  • US occupation of Japan
from empire to dictatorship to liberal democracy7
From Empire to Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy
  • 1947 McArthur Constitution (Gral. McArthur, head of the occupation forces)
  • 1940s Organization of parties (Liberal, Socialist)
  • Beginning of the economic reorganization of the country.
  • 1950s:
    • 1952 San Francisco Treaty (US military bases on Japan)
    • Japan was turned into an American ally.
    • 1955 Beginning of the conservative hegemony (emphasis on economic growth and redistribution)
    • Strong debates between parties on the right and the left about the role and future of Japan (riots).
the japanese miracle
The Japanese “miracle.”
  • 9% annual economic growth from 1955 to 1973 (and 4-5% afterwards).
  • In 1970, Japan was the 3rd economy in the world.
  • Secrets:
    • State planning (“Take off” MITI).
    • Long term investments (and expected gains)—Technology.
    • Good conditions for workers/consumers
    • Skilled workforce
ldp s hegemony
LDP’s Hegemony
  • From 1945-55: multi-party system
  • From 1955 to 1993, the LDP won every general election. One-party-dominant-system.
  • 1970s Frequent changes in cabinet membership, PM resignation, factions.
  • End in 1993: coalition of 8 parties (liberal/leftist)
japan politics today
Japan Politics Today
  • Unstable party system (continous formation and disintegration of parties—TV)
  • Uncertainty about the international role/s Japan may have to play
  • Increasing disillusionment from politics
  • Corruption
the government
The Government
  • Constitutional monarchy (male Emperor)
  • Emperor Akihito (1989) Heisei Era (Peace Attained). Years of the eras frame the calendar.
  • Unitary State (47 prefectures)
  • Parliamentary democracy (Prime Minister/Cabinet)
    • (=The United Kingdom?)

(but)

  • Written Constitution: the MacArthur Constitution consecrates the people as the sovereign.
art 9 japanese constitution
Art. 9 Japanese Constitution
  • Japan renounced to use military power (in fact, Japan has a strong military)
the executive
The Executive
  • Prime Minister (elected by the lower House) may submit bills in the name of the cabinet.
  • Member of the majority, or representing a coalition.
  • Commander-in-chief of the defense forces
  • Can be removed by votes of no confidence
  • Cabinet (most of its members come from the Diet)
legislative
Legislative
  • The Diet (highest organ of government, created in 1889) Kokkai
    • House of Councillors (252, 6 year-term)
    • House of Representatives (about 500, 4-year-term). 11 members are elected through SMD representing districts, the rest through PR. It has the greater power. Can be dissolved (generally every 2 or 3 years)

The members of both houses are elected democratically through suffrage (diff. With the UK and Germany)

the judiciary unitary system
The Judiciary (Unitary System)
  • Supreme Court (appointed by the cabinet & subjected to the people’s approval in the next election) has the power of judicial review
  • 8 High courts
  • 50 District Courts
  • 50 Family Courts
  • Summary Courts
slide16

Source: McNelly, Theodore, “The Government of Japan,”Intro. To Comparative Gvt.

Diet

Election

Dissolution

Legislation

Des. Prime Minister/ No Confidence

Review legislation

People

(sovereign)

Administration

Review

Cabinet

Supreme

Court

Appointment of judges

Administration of justice

the state bureaucracy
The State Bureaucracy
  • Prestigious bureaucratic careers (enhanced by the Confucian tradition)
  • Insulation
  • Cabinet members tend to be career politicians (and leading politicians frequently come from bureaucratic careers)
  • Links to corporations
importance of consensus
Importance of Consensus
  • Deliberation councils linked to interest groups within the community informally intervene in the legislative process (prepare bills)