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Some Roles of Puzzles and Games in Education Dave Moursund. p2 Introduction. p6 Computerized and non-computerized: Puzzles Board games Card games Word games But not physical sporting event such as Olympic Games Brief Sharing
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Four-part definition of problem:
divide and conquer. Divide a large problem into smaller sub-problems that are more manageable. Do this in a manner such that once the sub-problems are solved, it is relatively easy to put the pieces together to solve the original problem.
Note the value of having a large repertoire of “sub-problems” that one can readily solve. Often, some of the sub-problems can be solved by a computer or other machine.
In general, a problem might have:
What is the situation with a specific Sudoku puzzle?
Challenge to audience: Think of situations in which you apply the strategy of elimination as an aid to solving a personal, real world problem.
In “playing with” Sudoku we “discovered” four general-purpose strategies:
A puzzle is a problem or enigma.
Many puzzles stem from serious mathematical or logical problems, whereas others are devised for the sole purpose of being brain teasers.
The history of puzzles goes back many thousand years.
http://perplexus.info/tree.php. This Website uses the following categorization terms for puzzles: logic, probability, shapes, general (includes tricks, word problems, cryptography), numbers, games, paradoxes, riddles, just math, science, and algorithms.
Typically, Web sites that provide free puzzles and games make income to sustain themselves by:
Drag without rotation to fill square.
Move one disk at a time.
No disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk.
Jump horizontal or vertical.
Remove jumped peg.
Goal: one peg in the middle.
tic-tic-toe, chess, cribbage, backgammon
Have clearly defined general learning goals:
1. What is the purpose of this lesson?
2. Why is this important to learn?
3. How am I challenged to think in this lesson?
4. How will I apply, assess, or communicate what I’ve learned?
5. How will I know how good my work is and how I can improve it?
6. Do I feel respected by students in this class?
7. Do I feel respected by the teacher in this class?
1. Declarative knowledge about the game—rules, vocabulary, objectives, history.
2. Procedural knowledge about the game—using procedural thinking in making good moves. Knowledge and understanding of algorithmic and heuristic procedures relevant to making good moves.
3. How to learn a game. How expertise increases through gaining improved declarative and procedural knowledge, through practice, through metacognition, and through reflective analysis.
4. How to obtain and use feedback from oneself, the computer (if playing in a computer environment), and one’s fellow players (if playing with and/or against others).
5.To practice the high-road transfer of learning heuristics of developing an overall long-range strategy and making use of look ahead.
6. How to appropriately interact with fellow players and opponents. This includes learning the culture and social skills of game playing in general, as well as for the particular game being played.
7. The thrill of victory, the agony of defeat (if it is a competitive game).
8 How to help others learn to play the game; how to be a teach/mentor in a game learning and game playing environment.
9. Self assessment and peer assessment. Receiving and giving feedback from oneself and others that can be used to improve the level of one’s expertise.