F A L C I P A R U M M A L A R I A AN OVER VIEW. D R .C.K.TALUKDAR MD.,DRM,FICP,FICN,FICC PRAGATI NURSING HOME NALBARI.
PRAGATI NURSING HOME
MALARIABasic considerations and clinical features Malaria in man is caused by four distinct speciesofmalaria parasite:* P.vivax,P.falciparum,P.malariae,P.ovale* P.Vivax & P.falciparum are resposible for most of the infections found throughout the malarial belt.*P.malariae is widely distributed but is less common.*P.ovale is rare but in West Africa it seems to have replaced P.vivax.*Malaria is estimated to kill between 1.5 and 2.7 millionpeople each year.*In an average one person, often a child below 5yrs. Of age die in every 12 seconds.*Additional 300-500 million people contact the disease each year(Butlon,1997)
1600 B.C. References can be found in the writings
400 Hippocrates’ description of malaria.Charaka
and Sushrutha gave vivid descriptions of malaria
& even associated it with the bites of the mosquitoes.
1640 A.D. Huan del Vego – Cinchona bark for malaria treatment
1696 Morton first detailed picture of Malaria.
1717 Lanicsi Links malaria to bad air in swamps and thus
originates the name malaria.
1816 Gize-Extraction of quinine from cinchona bark
1820 Pelletier and Caventou – extraction of pure quinine alkaloids
1880 Laveran identifies malarial parasite under microscope.
1895 Golgi-Identification of P.vivax & P.malariae
1889-90 Sakharov,Marchiafava,Celli-identification of P.falciparum
PLASMODIUM VIVAX1. Red cells containing parasites are usually enlarged.2. Schuffner”s dots are frequently present in the red cells as shown.3. The mature ring forms tend to be large and coarse.4. Developing forms are frequently present.
1. Red cells are not enlarged.
2. Rings appear fine and delicate & there maybe
several in one cell.
3. It is unusual to see developing forms in peripheral
4. Gametocytes have a characteristic crescent
PLASMODIUM MALARIAE1.Ring forms may have a squarish appearance.2.Band forms are a characteristic of this species.3.Mature schizonts may have a typical daisy head appearance with up to ten merozoites.
1. Only found in Africa.
2. Red cells enlarged.
3. Comet forms common.
4. Rings large and coarser.
MALARIA PATHOLOGY**Pigmentation of various organs with haemozoin giving a characteristic “SLATE GREY” Or “BLACK COLOUR”.**Hyperplasia of the Reticulo-Endothelial system resulting from increased activity in order to deal with parasite and their product.**Parasitized erythrocytes filling the Lumina of the capillaries of the internal organs. This is particularly seen in P.falciparum infection.**Vascular changes-dilatation of sinusoidal vessels, perivascular haemorrhages are seen in falciparum malaria.* *Degenerative changes of parenchyma cells due to hypoxia [ seen in falciparum malaria].* *Effects of anaemia.**Immunosupression has been observed in malarial infection and this may lead to secondary bacterial infection.
THE SPLEENSpleen is enlarged,colour varies from slate gray to black, capsule is thin & stretched, consistency soft in acute cases while firm in chronic cases. “AGUE CAKE SPLEEN”THE LIVERThe Liver is uniformly enlarged due to vascular congestion and proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells. The colour varies from chocolate red to slate gray or even black depending upon the stage of congestion and deposition of the haemozoin pigment.BONE MARROWKIDNEYS
Does the Patient Need Hospitalization ?Seriously ill patients needing Hospitalization-Include:-Continuous vomiting andinability to retain oval drugs. Increasing Headache. Severe Dehydration.Poor general condition. Alteration of sensorium. Suspected cerebral malaria with unarousable Coma.Hyper pyrexia, convulsion. Pregnancy Oedema. Bleeding disorders.
COMPLICATIONS :Cerebral malaria and coma.Hyperpyrexia.Haemolytic Anaemia.Non cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ARDS ) ;Acute tubular necrosis and renal failure ;Acute Hepatomegaly and centrilobularnecrosis ;Hypoglycaemia ;An adrenal insufficiency like syndrome ;Cardiac dysrhythmias ;Lactic acidosis .
Pathology associated with all malarial species is related to the rupture of the infected RBC and release of haemozoin
An increased in reticulo-endothelial system is fond causing hepato-splenomegaly.
Cytoadhence of infected red cells to the vascular endothelium & RBC’s causing rossetting-compromises microcirculatory flow.
In cerebral malaria-due to sequestration of the infected
erythrocyles in the cerebral microcirculation.
Sequestration in cytiadherence of trophozoite and schizont infected erythrocytes to the endothelial cells of the deeper vascular beds of the vital organs-specially the brain,liver,gut,heart & placenta,
patients weighing >50kg. 3 tablets stat,
patients weighing <50kg. 2 tablets stat,
(provided patient has no sulpha allergy)
+ quinine 600mg TDS for 2 days.
2.Quinine600mg TDS or Quinine sulphate 10mg/kg/8 hrly for 7 days + Doxycycline 100mg BD or Tetracycline 500 mg BD for 7 days.
3.Mefloquine750 mg stat, followed by 750 mg after 6 hrs. (Pts. Weighing > 50 kg) or 500mg stat followed by 500mg after 6hrs. (Pts. Weighing < 50 kg.)
Bulaquine: A New generation Anti-malarial drug Bulaquine a derivative of primaquine developed by the Central Drug research Institute in collaboration with W.H.O.,Advantage :-Bulaquine has a biological activity against the tissue schizont forms of Plasmodium Vivax having :- a. A better therapeutic window. b. Lesser side effects, c. A better therapeutic index as compared to current treatment available.
Dosage of Bulaquine :-** 25 mg once daily for 5 days. ** Should be given with chloroquine for complete cure of Vivax malaria.
INDICATION : For the treatment of Vivax malaria
1. Rheumatoid Arthritis.
2. Systematic Lupus erythematosus.
Concurrent use of Drugs known to cause Haemolysis