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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Public Facilities September 8, 2004 Terri Walters State and Local Initiatives [email protected] High Performance Public Buildings: Overview Design Process Site Selection Lighting & Daylighting Building Shells

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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies for Public Facilities

September 8, 2004

Terri Walters

State and Local Initiatives

[email protected]

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High Performance Public Buildings: Overview

  • Design Process

  • Site Selection

  • Lighting & Daylighting

  • Building Shells

  • Mechanical Systems and Controls

  • Renewable Energy

  • Commissioning

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DOE Zero Energy Buildings Vision

  • “By the year 2020, the United States will be constructing a significant number of buildings that:

  • meet their own energy needs by utilizing solar or other renewable resources,

  • have no on-site or off-site carbon emissions,

  • reduce utility peak electrical demand,

  • optimize the health and productivity of their occupants,

  • provide energy security from natural disasters and extended power outages.”

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Zero Energy Buildings Systems Integration




PV and Solar Hot

Water Technologies

Efficiency Technologies

& Building Integration

Zero Energy

Buildings Goal

Fuel Cell Technology &

Hydrogen Infrastructure

Combined Heat and Power Technologies


Fuel Cells



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Whole Buildings Focus

Evaluate a wide range of energy-efficient strategies,working together

Passive solar heating


High Efficiency HVAC


Better HVAC Controls

Better windows

Economizer cycle

Energy efficient lights and ballasts

Reduced infiltration

Lighting controls

Reduced duct leakage



Thermal mass

Distributed Generation

Combined Heat and Power

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Integrated Design

  • Modern Buildings function as complex systems

  • Whole building design is critical for success

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Early Planning is Critical



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Design Consideration for Municipal Buildings

  • Ensure fiscal discipline

    • Energy efficient and self-generation reduces life cycle cost

  • Provide safe and healthy workspace

    • Building comfort increases productivity

  • Address reliable and secure energy supplies

    • Especially important for critical services and emergency facilities

  • Demonstrate community leadership

    • Municipal governments set the tone by using RE and EE

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New Building Technologies

  • Cool and Green Roofs

  • Active and Passive Solar

  • Daylighting and lighting controls

  • High Efficiency Windows

  • Energy management and tracking systems

  • Onsite power generation

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Green Roof Technologies Reduce Cooling Loads

  • Reduces cooling load (insulates)

  • Reduces stormwater runoff as well as cleans runoff

  • Reduces urban heat island effect

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Cool Roofs

  • “Cool” roofs reduce cooling load by up to 40%

    • Reflect sun’s thermal energy instead of absorbing it

    • Reduces urban heat island effect

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Solar Thermal Systems

  • Solar collectors produce heat for many applications

    • Domestic hot water

    • Pool heating

    • Space heating

    • Absorption cooling

  • Can provide 40%-80% of building needs

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Solar Thermal for Cooling: Absorption Chillers

  • Texas has excellent solar resources but mainly needs cooling, not heating.

  • Absorption Chillers can use solar thermal collectors as a heat source.

    • Absorption chillers used extensively in New York.

    • Hybrid Solar/Fossil absorption chillers available.

  • Austin Energy’s Sand Hill building uses solar absorption chillers.

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Solar Thermal for Air Heating

  • Transpired Solar Collectors are solar air preheating systems

  • Collector is dark metal wall with holes

  • Typical system payback 3-12 years

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Desiccant Cooling Systems

  • Non CFC, energy efficient space conditioning

  • Heat driven, like absorption cooling

  • Dehumidifies and cleans the air, making it useful for hospitals and other clean air environments

  • Perform best in humid environments

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High Efficiency Windows

  • Texas SB 5 requires windows with a Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.40.

  • SHGC measure how much solar heat is allowed through the window. Lower is better!

  • Current Texas buildings average .73

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Diffusing Skylights

  • Diffusing skylights can reduce both electric and cooling loads.

    • Skylights reduce electric loads by replacing lighting

    • Reduce cooling loads through reflectivity as well as reduced heat loads from lighting.

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Integration of Lighting and buildingLighting Controls

  • Integration of natural daylighting, artificial lighting and lighting controls is important

  • Note the natural daylight is indirect

    • avoids glare problems

    • reduces direct heat gain

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Ground Source Heat Pumps building

  • Heat Pumps make use of the constant temperature of the earth

    • Fluid is pumped through pipe loops placed underground

    • Can be used for heating and cooling.

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Photovoltaics buildingBuilding Integrated

  • 4 Times Square, NYC

  • Demonstration of several energy technologies

  • PV Curtain Wall on upper floors

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Building-Integrated PV building

  • Any PV system can be integrated with a building

  • Building Integrated PV tends to have lower efficiencies than standard PV

  • NREL research is focused on raising these efficiencies.

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Energy Management Controls building

  • EMC optimize performance of all buildings systems

  • Complex array of sensors and controls to ensure efficienct use of energy.

  • Balance Economizers, Variable Air Volume fans, Daylighting & Lighting

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On-Site Power Generation building

  • Power Quality Power Reliability

    • Critical Government services

    • Hospitals

    • Communications

    • Emergency services

Courtesy Powerlight Corporation

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Combined Heat and Power building

  • Combining heat and power increases efficiency

  • Future of CHP

    • Microturbines

    • Fuel Cells

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Case Studies building

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Pennsylvania DEP: buildingCambria Office Building

  • Energy Efficient Features

    • Efficient envelope

    • Under-floor air distribution system

    • Ground-source heat pumps

    • 18 kW PV system

    • Daylighting / lighting system

30% energy savings

87 EnergyStar Rating

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Jefferson County, CO buildingDistrict Attorney Building

  • 52,000 square feet

  • Daylighting

  • Passive Solar

  • High-quality, low cost

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Foothills Community Hospital buildingBoulder, CO

  • First LEED Hospital

    • Silver certified

  • Combined Heat and Power

  • Efficient HVAC and Lighting

  • White Roof

  • Water Conservation

  • Green Power

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Galt House, Lousville KY building

  • World’s largest Ground Source Heat Pump project

  • GHP system cut energy use in half in 750,000 sq. ft. hotel

  • Savings

    • 20-50% on installation

    • $25,000/mo. on energy

    • 25,000 sq.ft. space

  • 15 years of success

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Low Temperature Solar Hot Water: buildingBarnes Field House, Fort Huachuca, AZ

  • 2,000 square feet of unglazed collectors

  • Meets 49% of pool heating load

  • Installation: $35,000

  • Annual savings: $5,400

  • Older project, 1980

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High Temperature Solar Hot Water: buildingSocial Security Admin. Philadelphia.

  • Reheats Recirculation Loop

  • Cost $58,000

  • Delivery of 143 million Btu/year estimated

  • Installed 2004.

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High Performance Buildings: Texas building

  • Austin City Council resolution in 2000

    • All new municipal buildings LEED Silver

  • New green buildings:

    • Austin Energy: Sand Hill Center

    • Austin Library: Carver Branch

    • Combined Emergency Center

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Summary building

  • Buildings are complex systems and require an Integrated Design Process

  • Early planning crucial

  • EE and RE innovations make Zero net energy achievable

  • Leverage existing as well as emerging technologies

  • Public buildings can lead the way for a more efficient building sector.