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Electronic Engineering Department King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Lecture # I 01044050 MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING 2 nd Semester 2006 http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kbittibh/microelect.html http://www.rit.edu/~lffeee/emcr731.htm(Dr . Lynn Lecture Notes) OBJECTIVES

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slide1

Electronic Engineering Department

King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

Lecture # I

01044050 MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

2ndSemester 2006

slide2

http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kbittibh/microelect.html

http://www.rit.edu/~lffeee/emcr731.htm(Dr. Lynn Lecture Notes)

slide3

OBJECTIVES

PROVIDE EXPERIENCE FOR STUDENTS IN APPLYING KNOWLEDGE FOR MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

PROVIDE A REAL LIFE WORK IN AN MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

PROVIDE A BASELINE FOR RESEARCH IN MANUFACTURING

ALLOWS FOR BETTER CONTROL OF THE LABORATORY PROCESSES, IMPROVES QUALITY, REDUCES MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME

BETTER SATISFY OUR CUSTOMERS

slide4

MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

IS DIFFERENT THAN

MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION

slide5

MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION

THE DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF A SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FOR CIRCUIT.

THE GOAL IS ACHIEVED IFONE DEVICE OR CIRCUIT IS MADE TO WORK.

RESEARCH IS CENTERED ON NEW TECHNOLOGIESAND MATERIALS, SMALLER AND FASTER DEVICES, NOVEL CIRCUITS, ETC.

MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

THE REALIZATION OF LARGE NUMBERS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES OR CIRCUITS.

THE GOAL IS ACHIEVED IF LARGE NUMBERS OF CIRCUITS ARE MADE, AT LOW COST, WITH HIGH YIELD AND QUICK TURN AROUND.

RESEARCH IS CENTERED ON MANUFACTURING METHOLOLOGY, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, STATISTIAL PROCESS CONTROL, FACTORY SIMULATION, ETC.

slide6

NUMBER OF STUDENTS GRADUATING EACH YEAR WITH EDUCATION IN MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

LESS THAN 100/YEAR AT THE GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE

slide7

TYPICAL UNDERGRADUATE MICROELECTRONICS EXPERIENCE

MANUFACTURING CONTENT

VLSI DESIGN (DIGITAL SYSTEMS) NONE

ANALOG I.C. DESIGN(ELECTRONICS) NONE

I.C. PROCESSING LECTURE NONE

I.C. FABRACATION LABORATORY SMALL

DEVICE PHYSICS NONE

slide8

MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING CONTENT THAT IS MISSING

OPEATIONS RESEARCH:

FACTORY FLOOR SIMULATION

WORK IN PROGRESS TRACKING

TOTAL CYCLE TIME MANAGEMENT

MATERIALS RESOURCE PLANNING

SCHEDULING

PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE

slide9

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL:

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

STATISTICAL THINKING

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

COMPUTER AUTOMATION:

CAD, CAM, CIM

SEC I, II

ROBOTICS

AI, EXPERT SYSTEM

OTHER:

LITHOGRAPHY

slide10

CAD, CAM, CIM IN THE MICROELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

THE DESIGN OF THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT, INCLUDES LAYOUT EDITORS SUCH AS ICE, CHIPRAPH, DESIGN RULE CHECKERS, SWITCH LEVEL SIMULATORS, TIMING VERIFICATION, CIRCUIT SIMULATORS(PSPICE), SHEMATIC CAPTURE, TEST GENERATION

ALSO- THE DESIGN OF THE FABRICATION PROCESS, INCLUDES PROCESS SIMULATORS SUCH AS SUPREM ROMANS II, BISIM, SAMPLE, PROLITH, DREAMS, PROSIM, DEPICT 2 etc.

CAM – COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING

FACTORY SIMULATION, PLANNING AND SCHEDULING OF WORK IN PROCGRESS, THE OPERATION OF THE FABRICATION PROCESS, INCLUDES LOT CONTROL, DATA COLLECTION, STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL, DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, FACILITIES, MONITORING, RECIPE MODIFICATION AND DOWNLOADING, YIELD MODELING, FLEXABLE MANUFACTURING, ROBOTICS, AI, EXPERT SYSTEMS

slide11

CIM – COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

CONCEPT IN WHICH COMPUTERSOFTWARE AND HARDWARE IS INTEGRATED THROUGHOUT A MANUFACTURING FACILITY TO PROVIDE INTEGRATION AMONG FUNCTIONS SUCH AS ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH, PRODUCTION PLANNING, PLANT OPERATIONS, SHIPPING, RECEIVING, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, MARKETING, EVERYTHING

slide12

Work flow through NMOS process, is about 60 steps.

This illustrates the manufacturing problem industrial engineering. There is also a yield loss at each step.

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slide13

Computer automated microelectronics manufacturing

Capabillites

Control Equipments Access and Monitor Equipment Status

Monitor Clean Room Environment

Measure Performance

Provide a Laboratory to Test Manufacturing

Control Equipment(Download Recipes)

Collect in-Process Test Data

Collect Final Test Data

Statistical Process Control

Schedule Operations

Materials Planning

Operator Prompts

Control Robotic Systems

Manual Input and Auto Input Notebooks

slide14

SUMMARY

Product Technology - is not the primary factor in competitiveness that it oncewas

Manufacturing - is now at least as important

The world semiconductor will be won by those who can manufacture

slide15

CONCLUSIONS

The universities in the United States can be world leaders in Microelectronics manufacturing education and research

World leadership in manufacturing research des not guarantee manufacturing competitiveness

THE UNIVERSITIES ROLE

Give new importance to manufacturing(New courses and new programs)

Get manufacturing into the B.S. level programs so that when they become engineers in industry, they are prepared to be world leaders in manufacturing.

INDUSTRY ROLE

Give new importance to manufacturing engineering(attractive career paths)

Need to redefine jobs and retrain employees

slide16

MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING INCLUDES

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY

DEVICE FABRICATION

SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

LITHOGRAPHY

MATERIALS SCIENCE

slide17

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY

OXIDATION/DIFFUSION

LPCVD

PLASMA ETCH

RAPID THERMAL ANNEAL

SPUTTERING

ION IMPLANT

LITHOGRAPHY

slide18

DEVICE FABRICATION

ELECTRONIC DEVICES

MOS STRUCTURES

DIODE, RESISTORS

TRANSISTORS

GATES, RING OSCILLATORS

ANALOG OTA’S

MICROELECTROMECHANICAL

SENSORS, ACTUATORS

OTHER

slide19

SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

WIPTRACKING

PROCESS ENGINEERING

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

CYCLE TIME

DEFECT REDUCTION & YIELD ENHANCED

TQM, CP, CPK

slide20

LITHOGRAPHY

EXPOSURE TOOLS

COAT AND EEVELOP TOOLS

RESIST MATERIALS

POSITIVE NOVALAC RESISTS

NEG CHEMICALLY AMPLIFIED

CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT

DYED, ARC

MULTILAYER

TOP SURFACE IMAGING

MODELING

PHASE SHIFT

DUV

slide21

MATERIALS SCIENCE

SURFACE ANALYSIS

SEM, TEM

AUGER, SIMS

XPS, ESCA

MATERIALS PROCESSING

METALS(SPUTTERING)

CVD(LPCVD)

PLASMA

RAPID THERMAL

slide22

BASIC EDUCATIONAL FACILITY

3-6 TUBES FURNACE

RESIST SPINNER

BAKE OVEN OR HOT PLATE

CONTACT PRINTERS

WET ETCH HOOD

EVAPORATIOR

OPTICAL MICROSCOPE

4PT PROBE, GROOVE

SUPREM II

slide23

CMOS CAPABLE EDUCATIONAL FACILITY

BASIC FACILITYPLUS ALL BELOW

LPCVD POLY AND NITRIDE

WAFER COAT//DEVELOP SYSTEM

STEPPERS

PLASMA ETCHOR RIE

SPUTTERING

ION IMPLANT

SEM, NANOSPEC

SUPREM III, IV, PSPICE

slide24

A UNIVERSITY MICROELECTRONICS CIM SYSTEM CAPABILITIES

CONTROL EQUIPMENT ACCESS

MONITOR EQUIPMENT STATUS

LOT TRACKING

OPERATOR INSTRUCTIONS

EQUIPMENT OPERATION MANUALS

SCHEDULEING

MANUAL INPUT AND AUTO INPUT DATA COLLECTION

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

MONITOR CLEANROOM ENVIRONENT

MATERIALS PLANNING

DOWNLOAD RECIPES TO EQUIPMENT

CONTROL ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

EXPERT SYSTEMS

slide25

MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING PLAN

INSTALL HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR RESOURCE PLANNING TO KEEP INVENTORY OF CHEMICALS, WAFERS AND GASES.

UNPACK AND PLACE EQUIPMENT

PROVIDE ELECTRICITY AND COMMUNICATIONS HOOK UP

LAY CABLE TRAYS

PURCHASE AND INSTALL CONNECTORS AND CABLE

OBTAIN TRAINING FOR SYSTEM OPERATOR

SET UP BAR CODE SYSTEM FOR WAFER LOTS

SET UP BAR CODE DETAILS FOR PIECES OF EQUIPMENT AND PEOPLE

INSTALL ALL SOFTWARE

CUSTOMIZE WIPTRACK SOFTWARE

INPUT PROCESS SEQUENCE

INPUT OPERATOR INSTRUCTIONS

INPUT EQUIPMENT OPERATOR MANUALS

INTERFACE SYSTEM TO INDIVIDUA PIECES OF EQUIPMENT FOR CONTROL

slide26

PROCESS DETAILS

PHOTORESIST COAT AND DEVELOP TRACK SYSTEM

EXPOSURE TOOL(STEPPER) WITH INTERFACE

ION IMPLANTER

MASKMAKIN

SPUTTERING SYSTEM

WAFER CLEANING SYSTEM

LPCVD POLY AND NITRIDE

FURNACE WITH AUTO LOADING AND SECS INTERFACE

slide28

HISTORY

  • VERY PURE SILICON AND GERMANIUM
  • 1947 PN JUNCTION DIODES INVENTED
  • 1947 THE JUNCTION TRANSISTOR IS INVENTED AT BELL LABS BY HARDEEN, BRATTIN AND SCHOCKLEY
  • 1950 SINGLE CRYSTALS BY TEAL AND LITTLE AT BELL LABS
  • 1954 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INTRODUCES COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF THE TRANSISTOR
  • 1958 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS INVENTED BY KILBY AT TI
  • 1960 FIRST PLANER INTEGRATED CIRCUITS INVENTED BY NOYCE AT FAIRCHILD
  • 1962 FIRST COMMERCIAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
slide29

WORLDWIDE INDUSTRY RANKINGS

PETROLEUM REFINING $ 941,825

MOTOR VEHICLES AND PARTS $ 796,129

ELECTRONICS $ 640,101

FOOD $ 382,422

CHEMICALS $ 374,627

METALS $370,693

INDUSTRIAL AND FARM EQUIPMENT $197,303

COMPUTER(OFFICE EQUIPMENT) $ 179,789

AEROSPACE $ 166,558

FOREST PRODUCTS $ 142, 556

PHARMACEUTICALS $ 116,081

BEVERAGES $ 96, 278

BUILDING MATERIALS $ 93,825

METAL PRODUCTS $ 88,783 BILLIONS

slide30

WORLDWIDE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

CONSUMER ELECTRONICS $ 60.7

ACTIVE COMPONENTS $ 47.6

PASSIVE COMPONENTS $ 48.6

MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT $ 47.3

PROFESSIONAL ELECTRONICS $ 94.9

TELECOMMUNICATIONS $ 58.0

AUTOMATION $ 46.6

DATA PROCESSING $ 191.5

SOFTWARE $ 123.8

OFFICE AUTOMATION $ 26.0

TOTAL $ 640.1 BILLION

slide31

WORLD’S TOP 20 ELECTRONICS COMPANIES

COMPANY COUNTRY SALES

IBM CORP U.S. $ 62,710

MATSUSHITA JAPAN $ 31,319

NEC CORP JAPAN $ 24,975

TOSHIBA CORP JAPAN $ 22,674

HITACHI CORP JAPAN $ 22,055

PHILIPS NV N’LANDS $ 21,594

SEIMENS AG W. GERMANY $ 19,825

FUJITSU LTD JAPAN $ 18,477

SONY CORP JAPAN $ 16,904

GENERAL MOTORS U.S. $ 16,880

AT&T U.S. $ 16,612

CGE FRANCE $ 13,307

slide32

WORLD’S TOP 20 ELECTRONICS COMPANIES

COMPANY COUNTRY SALES

DIGITAL EQUIPMENT U.S. $ 12,943

GENERAL ELECTRIC U.S. $ 12,369

MITSUBISHI JAPAN $ 11,862

XEROX U.S. $ 11,602

THOMSON CSF FRANCE $ 11,175

UNISYS U.S. $ 10,097

MOTOROLA U.S. $ 9,620

CANON JAPAN $ 9,593

slide33

WORLD’S TOP 20 SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURERS

COMPANY

NIPPON ELECTRIC $ 5,015

TOSHIBA $ 4,930

HITACHI $ 3,974

MOTOROLA $ 2,963

FUJITSU $ 2,787

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS $ 2,579

MITSUBISHI $ 2,430

INTEL $ 1,882

MATSUSHITA $ 1,716

PHILIPS $ 1,618

NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR $ 1,365

SANYO $ 1,301

SGS-THOMSON $ 1,260

SAMSUNG $ 1,230

SIEMENS $ 1,194

OKI SEMICONDUCTOR $ 1,154

ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES $ 1,100

SONY $ 1,077

AT&T $ 873 MILLION

slide34

TOP 10 EQUIPMENT MAKERS 1988

NIKON $ 520 MILLION

TOKYO ELECTRON $ 508

ADVANTEST $ 385

APPLIED MATERIALS $ 381

GENERAL SIGNAL $ 375

CANON $ 290

VARIAN $ 211

PERKIN ELMER $ 205

TERADYNE $ 190

LTX $ 180

slide35

MARKET SHARE AND TOTAL SALES 1989

U.S. 43% MARKET SHARE SALE OF $ 28.6 BILLION

JAPAN 39% MARKET SHARE SALE OF $ 26 BILLION

REST OF WORLD 15% SALE OF $ 12.6 BILLION

TOTAL $ 67.2 BILLION

slide36

FOREIGN SEMICONDUCTOR FABS IN THE U.S.

NEC - ROSEVILLE, CA

FUJITSU - GRRECIAN, OR

SONY - SAN ANTONIO, TX

MITSUBISHI - RESEARCH TRIANGLE, NC

MATSUSHITA - PUWALLUP, WA

SHARP - SEATTLE, WA

TOSHIBA - SUNNYVALE, CA

HOYA(MICROMASK) – MOUNTAINVIEW, CA

TOPPAN - DALLAS, TX

slide37

TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION

INTRO DRAM FEATURE PROCESS DEFECT LITHO

YEAR DENSITY SIZE STEPS DENSITY TOOL

MBITS MICRONS /CM2 COST

MIL $

1985 1 1.00 230 0.80 0.8

1988 4 0.75 270 0.45 1.0

1991 16 0.50 380 0.32 3.0

1994 64 0.35 490 0.23 5.5

1997 256 0.25 590 0.16 7.0

2000 1000 0.15 700 0.05 10.0

slide38

TECHNOLOGY BY 2000

I.C. FACTORY COST $1 BILLION

GIGABIT DRAMS

100 MILLION TRANSISTOR I.C.’S

LESS THAN 0.15 MICRON FEATURES

LESS THAN 0.05 DEFECTS/CM2

250 MZ

2 BILLION INSTRUCTIONS/SEC

3 VOLTS

1 INCH BY 1 INCH CHIPS

400 LEADS

25 WATTS/CHIP

25 WATTS/CHIP

slide39

NEW DESIGN TOOLS FOR 1 BILLION TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS

NEW STRUCTURES, SUPERLATTICES

QUANTUM-COUPLED DEVICES

slide40

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MANUFACTURING

A VARIETY OF SEQUENTIAL STEPS WHICH RESULTS IN HUNDREDS OFTHOUSANDS OF TRANSISTORS BEING MADE AT THE SAME TIME ON EACH CHIP

STEPS ARE:

DEPOSITION - CVD, LPCVD, METALLIZATION

SURFACE ALTERING – DIFFUSION, ION IMPLANTATION OXIDATION

PHOTOLITOGRAPHY –

ETCHING – WET CHEMICAL, PLASMA ETCH

CLEANING -

slide41

SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING 1991

PARTIAL CIM

CASSETTE TO CASSETTE

LIMITED AUTOMATIC MATERIALS MOVERS

OUTPUT PARAMETER SPC

EXSITU METROLOGY

BATCH PROCESSING

CLASS 10 TO 1 VLF

LIMITED INTEGRATED PROCESS TOOLS

90% FAB YIELD

60% SORT YIELD

40% EQUIPMENT UTILIZATIONS

2X THEORETICAL CYCLE TIME

0.5 DEFECTS PER CM2 AT 1 MICRON

150-200 MM WAFER SIZE

slide42

SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

MICROCONTAMINATION AND DEFECT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS WILL ESCALATE EXPONENTIALLY

A 0.3 MICRON CHANNEL IS ONLY 3000 ATOMS LONG

A 20 ANGSTROM THICK OXIDE FOR A CAPACITOR IS ONLY 4 MOLECULES THICK iiii

A 60 ANGSTROM THICK OXIDE FOR GATE IS ONLY 12 MOLECULES THICK iiii

slide43

YIELD = NUMBER OF WORKING CHIPS

TOTAL NUMBER OF CHIPS

YIELD = NUMBER OF STEPS

AVERAGE YIELD/STEP

98% AVERAGE YIELD PER STEP AND 100 STEPS GIVES 13% OVERALL YIELD

slide44

SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

AT A COST OF $1 BILLION FOR NEW FABS ASSET UTILIZATION WILL BE THE KEY TO COMPETITIVE MANUFACTURING

EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY/UPTIME MUST BE MAXIMIZED, 100% TOTAL PREVENTATIVE MAINTANENCE

INTER-BAYAND INTRA-BAY AUTOMATION WILL BE NEEDED

ADVANCED WIP TRACKING TO ELIMINATE QUEUES

AUTOMATED TOOLS AND RECIPE HANDILING

EXTEND THE USEFUL LIFE OF TOOLS

HUG THE 100% LOADING CAPACITY

slide45

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN

1 MICRON LINE REPRESENTED BY TWO PENCIL MARKS 1/10 INCH APART

THIS IS 2500 TIMES ACTUAL SIZE

THUS A 1/2 x ½ INCH CHIP DRAWN 2500 TIMES ACTUAL SIZE WILL BE MORE THAN 100 FEET BY 100 FEET

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN STATIONS(CAD)

slide46

TESTING

6 INCH DIAMETER WAFER HAS A SURFACE AREA OF PI r2 = Pi X 9 OR ABOUT 30 SQ. IN.

EACH .1 BY .1 INCH CHIP HAS AREA OF 0.01 THUS 3000 CHIPS PER WAFER TO TEST

INDUSTRY STARTS TYPICALLY 5000 WAFERS PER WEEK THUS THERE ARE 15,000 CHIPS TO TEST PER WEEK

IF WE TEST EACH CHIP IN 1 SECOND ITWOULD TAKE 4200 HOURS TO TEST ALL THE CHIPS MADE IN ONE WEEK(OR 100 TESTERS)

slide47

EXTERNAL FACTORS

TARIFFS, TRADE AGREEMENTS

TAXES, GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES

RESTRICTIONS/CONTROL/GOVERNMENT REPORTING

CAPITAL AVAILABILITY AND COST

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

slide48

200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S

DIE/WAFER FOR BIG CHIP SIZE

25 mm BY 25 mm DIE

GIVES 25 DIE ON 200 mm WAFER

GIVES 13 DIE ON 150 mm WAFER

INTEL

AMD

MOTOROLA

IBM

DEC

slide49

200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S

ECONOMIC FACTORS

5000 WAFERS/WEEK

10 mm BY 10 mm Die

$ 50/CHIP

REVENUE/YEAR

200 mm FAB GIVES

324X5000X50X$50 = $4.05 BILLION/YEAR

slide50

200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S

ECONOMIC FACTORS

WORLD SEMICONDUCTOR SALES

$ 80 BILLION/YEAR

$80 B/ $4 B = 20 FABS IN THE WORLD

slide51

SEMICONDUCTORMANUFACTURING WAFER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

650 LOAD/UNLOAD TRANSACTIONS PER PROCESS

6.8 MILLION/YEAR

DISTANCE TRAVELLED – 6 MILES THROUGH PROCESS

TIME IN FAB – 40 DAYS

RUN BOX OPENED/CLOSED - 320 TIMES THROUGH PROCESS

WEIGHT/LOT = 16 LBS(8” WAFERS)

SIZE OF LOT 10”x10”x10”

COST VALUE/LOT $25,000

SALES VALUE/LOT $ 100,000 TO $ 1,000,000

AVERAGE VALUE OF WIP INVENTORY $6 TO $60 MILLION

13 PEOPLE TO JUST DO MOVE, LOAD, UNLOAD

0.7 MICRON PROCESS, 5000 WAFER STARTS/WEEK, 25 WAFERS/LOT