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Depleted Uranium and the Gulf War(s) . Prof. Lynn R. Cominsky SSU Department of Physics and Astronomy. Talk Outline. What is Depleted Uranium? Uses of Depleted Uranium Environmental and Health Effects Proliferation . Uranium. Uranium: 238 U is >99% in nature

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depleted uranium and the gulf war s

Depleted Uranium and the Gulf War(s)

Prof. Lynn R. Cominsky

SSU Department of Physics and Astronomy

talk outline
Talk Outline
  • What is Depleted Uranium?
  • Uses of Depleted Uranium
  • Environmental and Health Effects
  • Proliferation
uranium
Uranium
  • Uranium: 238U is >99% in nature
  • 235U is ~0.7% in nature – major ingredient in fission weapons
  • 238U and 235U are isotopes - differing numbers of neutronsin the nucleus
  • In order to make nuclear weapons, Uranium must be “enriched” to > 90% 235U (“weapons grade”)
  • There are several different ways to enrich Uranium to make weapons grade fuel – each leaves behind “depleted” Uranium
depleted uranium
Depleted Uranium
  • Depleted Uranium can be put into fuel cells in a nuclear reactor and used to produce weapons grade 239Pu
  • This is why Israel bombed the French-built OSIRAK nuclear reactor in Iraq in 1981

Targets made of depleted U which will be bombarded by neutrons to make Pu

depleted uranium5
Depleted Uranium
  • After processing, the remaining 238U is still naturally radioactive (with a half-life of billions of years)
  • Uranium is a very dense metal (1.7 x Lead), making it ideal for use in tank armor and shell casings
  • Uranium is pyrophoric – friction causes it to burn
  • The USA used depleted Uranium weapons in the Persian Gulf War (1991), in Bosnia (1995) and Kosovo (1999) and second Gulf War (2003)
  • Aerosolized depleted Uranium is both a toxic and radiological hazard
238 u and the first gulf war
238U and the first Gulf War
  • More than 640,000 pounds of contaminated equipment was left on the battlefields
  • US-coalition forces used 238U in
    • Large caliber shells fired from tanks
    • Small caliber shells fired from aircraft
    • Sniper bullets
    • Tank armor in 1/3 (2000+) of tanks
problems from 238 u dust
Problems from 238U dust
  • After burning, 238U creates fine radioactive and toxic vapor and dust
  • More than 50% of these particles are just the right size to be inhaled, where they lodge in the lungs and remain for years
  • It is easily carried by the wind, and stays in the air for hours after impact
  • It also easily dissolves in water
  • Ground contamination allows resuspension into the air and eventual water contamination
  • No ground cleanup has occurred in Iraq or Kuwait since the first Gulf War ($$$!)
problems from 238 u fragments
Problems from 238U fragments
  • Unburned, 238U remains radioactive – is classified as a “low-level” waste, subject to proper disposal and controls
  • Fragments corrode with time, creating more dust and contaminated soil
  • High levels of radioactivity have been measured from fragments found after the first Gulf War in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia
health problems
Health problems
  • Many US service people were exposed to depleted Uranium during the first Gulf War
  • Local populations in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were also exposed
  • Particles can be found in the brain, kidney, bone, reproductive organs, muscle and spleen
  • Causing kidney damage, cancers of the lung and bone, non-malignant respiratory disease, skin disorders, neurocognitive disorders, chromosomal damage, and birth defects
proliferation
Proliferation
  • At least these countries now have weapons made of depleted Uranium:
    • United States
    • the United Kingdom
    • France
    • Russia
    • Greece
    • Turkey
    • Israel
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Kuwait
  • Bahrain
  • Egypt
  • Thailand
  • Taiwan
  • Pakistan
additional resources
Additional Resources
  • Depleted Uranium, a postwar disaster for environment and health http://www.rimbaud.freeserve.co.uk/dhap99f.html#FAHEY
  • Canadian coalition for Nuclear Responsibility http://www.ccnr.org