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  1. Physically Based Sound Modeling Class #13 (Feb 24) Doug James, CMU

  2. OverviewClass #13 (Feb 24) • Physically based sound modeling • Important aspects of PB sound: • generation (impact, vibration, ...) • emission • propagation • listening

  3. Properties of Sound Waves • Speed: • Speed in air is (approx) 344 m/s. • Speed in aluminum (longitudinal (sound) waves) is (approx) 5000 m/s (~3 miles/s). • Longitudinal waves usually travel faster than transverse • In general, speed is a function of frequency; important for solid materials.

  4. Adam Stettner, Donald P. Greenberg, Computer Graphics Visualization For Acoustic Simulation, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 89). 23(3), pp. 195-206, 1989. • Visualization of acoustic behavior of performance halls

  5. Tapio Takala, James Hahn, Sound Rendering, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 92). 26(2), pp. 211-220, 1992. • Introduced sound rendering to computer graphics • Modulate sound due to material properties • Do not account for shape of objects or location of collisions between objects

  6. Modal Vibration Sound Models • Simple but effective sound model for many hard objects • Modal vibration model accounts for • Shape of the object (related to frequency spectrum) • Location of the impact (related to timbre of sound) • Material of the struck object (via internal friction) • Force of the impact (related to amplitude of emitted sound) • Some related work... • Alex Pentland, John Williams, Good Vibrations: Modal Dynamics for Graphics and Animation, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 89). 23(3), pp. 215-222, 1989. • K. van den Doel and D. K. Pai, The Sounds of Physical Shapes, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7:4, The MIT Press, 1998. pp. 382--395. • Kees van den Doel , Paul G. Kry , Dinesh K. Pai, FoleyAutomatic: Physically Based Sound Effects for Interactive Simulation and Animation, SIGGRAPH 2001, p.537-544, August 2001.  • O'Brien, J. F., Shen, C., Gatchalian, C. M., Synthesizing Sounds from Rigid-Body Simulations,  ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Symposium on Computer Animation, San Antonio, Texas, July 21-22, pp. 175-182.

  7. Sonic Explorer First 9 eigenfunc’s of square plate K. van den Doel and D. K. Pai, The Sounds of Physical Shapes, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7:4, The MIT Press, 1998. pp. 382--395. • Introduced modal sound maps • Details on whiteboard • (1996 preprint online)

  8. http://hilbert.dartmouth.edu/~doyle/docs/drum/drum/drum.html An interesting aside... “Can one hear the shape of a drum?” • M. Kac. Can one hear the shape of a drum? Amer. Math. Monthly, 73, 1966. • C. Gordon, D. Webb, and S. Wolpert. One cannot hear the shape of a drum. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 27:134-138, 1992 • Example of a planar isospectral domain:

  9. Dinesh K. Pai, Kees van den Doel, Doug L. James, Jochen Lang, John E. Lloyd, Joshua L. Richmond, Som H. Yau, Scanning Physical Interaction Behavior of 3D Objects, Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001. pp. 87-96, 2001. • Modal sound maps can be scanned from real objects • Estimate {f,d,A}

  10. Dinesh K. Pai, Kees van den Doel, Doug L. James, Jochen Lang, John E. Lloyd, Joshua L. Richmond, Som H. Yau, Scanning Physical Interaction Behavior of 3D Objects, Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001. pp. 87-96, 2001.

  11. Kees van den Doel , Paul G. Kry , Dinesh K. Pai, FoleyAutomatic: Physically Based Sound Effects for Interactive Simulation and Animation, SIGGRAPH 2001, p.537-544, August 2001.  • FoleyAutomatic slideshow...

  12. James F. O'Brien , Perry R. Cook , Georg Essl, Synthesizing Sounds from Physically Based Motion, SIGGRAPH 2001, p.529-536, August 2001.  • Brute force computation of sound emission for deformable objects • FEM with explicit time-stepping • dt = 10-6 – 10-7 • Captures effects of larger deformations • Acoustic pressure: • Sound emission: • Delay based on distance:

  13. James F. O'Brien , Perry R. Cook , Georg Essl, Synthesizing Sounds from Physically Based Motion, SIGGRAPH 2001, p.529-536, August 2001. 

  14. James F. O'Brien , Perry R. Cook , Georg Essl, Synthesizing Sounds from Physically Based Motion, SIGGRAPH 2001, p.529-536, August 2001. 

  15. O'Brien, J. F., Shen, C., Gatchalian, C. M., Synthesizing Sounds from Rigid-Body Simulations,  ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Symposium on Computer Animation, San Antonio, Texas, July 21-22, pp. 175-182. • Use modal models in a rigid body simulator • Calculated per-mode emission coefficients

  16. Sound Propagation • Various approximations of sound wave propagation • Specular reflection and diffraction phenomena important • For a good summary, see • Funkhouser et al., “Sounds Good to Me!” Computational Sound for Graphics, Virtual Reality, and Interactive Systems SIGGRAPH 2002 Course notes.

  17. Wave Propagation Methods • Solve wave equation explicitly • FEM, BEM, or ... • Expensive • Ineffective for real-time acoustics

  18. Geometric Sound Propagation • Ray-tracing (& beam-tracing) • High-frequency approximation

  19. Thomas A. Funkhouser, Patrick Min, Ingrid Carlbom.Real-Time Acoustic Modeling for Distributed Virtual EnvironmentsProceedings of SIGGRAPH 99. pp. 365-374, 1999. • Beam-tracing • Video

  20. Nicolas Tsingos, Thomas Funkhouser, Addy Ngan, Ingrid Carlbom.Modeling Acoustics in Virtual Environments Using the Uniform Theory of DiffractionProceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001. pp. 545-552, 2001. • Extends beam tracing • Includes diffraction effects • Video

  21. The Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF) • Model overall effects of head, ear, and torso on sound propagation • Simulated or measured • MIT’s KEMAR dummy HRTF available