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Chapter 10 Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes. Cyclopropane CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Cyclobutane CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2. More Cycloalkanes. Cyclopentane CH 2 CH 2 CH 2

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chapter 10 alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons
Chapter 10Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Cycloalkanes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes

Cyclopropane CH2

CH2 CH2

Cyclobutane CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

more cycloalkanes
More Cycloalkanes

Cyclopentane CH2

CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2

Cyclohexane

CH2

CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2

CH2

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

naming cycloalkanes with side groups
Naming Cycloalkanes with Side Groups

Number of Naming

side groups

One Side group name goes in front of the cycloalkane name.

Two Number the ring in the direction that gives the lowest numbers to the side groups.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

cycloalkanes with side groups
Cycloalkanes with Side Groups

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

learning check alk8
Learning Check Alk8

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

solution alk8
Solution Alk8

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

aromatic compounds
Aromatic Compounds
  • Aromatic compounds contain benzene.
  • Benzene C6H6 has 6 C atoms and 6 H Atoms
  • Two possible ring structures show benzene.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

benzene structure
Benzene Structure

The structures for benzene are also written as one formula with a circle within the ring to represented the alternating double bonds.

Benzene

structure

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

aromatic compounds in nature and health
Aromatic Compounds in Nature and Health

Many aromatic compounds are common in nature and in medicine.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

naming aromatic compounds
Naming Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic compounds are named with benzene as the parent chain. One side group is named in front of the name benzene.

methylbenzene chlorobenzene

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

naming aromatic compounds12
Naming Aromatic Compounds

When two groups are attached to benzene, the ring is numbered to give the lower numbers to the side groups. The prefixes ortho (1,2), meta (1,3-) and para (1,4-) arealso used.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

some common names
Some Common Names

Some substituted benzene rings also use a common name. Then naming with additional more side groups uses the ortho-, meta-, para- system.

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

learning check alk9
Learning Check Alk9

Select the names for each structure:

1. Chlorocyclohexane

2. Chlorobenzene

3. 1-chlorobenzene

1. Meta-methyltoluene

2. Meta-dimethylbenzene

3. 1,3-dimethylbenzene

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

solution alk9
Solution Alk9

Select the names for each structure:

2. Chlorobenzene

1. Meta-methyltoluene

2. Meta-dimethylbenzene

3. 1,3-dimethylbenzene

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

learning check alk10
Learning Check Alk10

Write the structural formulas for each of the following:

A. 1,3-dichlorobenzene

B. Ortho-chlorotoluene

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

solution alk10
Solution Alk10

Write the structural formulas for each of the following:

A. 1,3-dichlorobenzene

B. Ortho-chlorotoluene

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

learning check alk11
Learning Check Alk11

Identify the organic family for each:

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

solution alk11
Solution Alk11

Identify the organic family for each:

alkane

cycloalkane

aromatic

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

fused benzene rings
Fused Benzene Rings

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999

carcinogens
Carcinogens
  • Fused ring of benzene cause cancer
  • Contain four or more fused rings
  • Present in tobacco smoke, auto exhaust, and burned food
  • The more a person smokes, the greater the risk of developing cancer

Timberlake LecturePLUS 1999