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Case Studies in Water Conservation Mary Ann Dickinson November 13-14, 2001 Darwin Advises….. Everything evolves, including water conservation programs Learn from others what works and what no longer does Analyze your situation for the pieces that fit Document….document…..

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case studies in water conservation

Case Studies in Water Conservation

Mary Ann Dickinson

November 13-14, 2001

darwin advises
Darwin Advises…..
  • Everything evolves, including water conservation programs
  • Learn from others what works and what no longer does
  • Analyze your situation for the pieces that fit
  • Document….document…..
in your backyard
In Your Backyard….
  • City of Atlanta
  • City of Savannah
atlanta water department
Atlanta Water Department
  • Low Income “Care and Conserve” Program
    • Plumbing repairs to reduce water waste
    • Fixture replacement (w/ ultra low-flow fixtures)
    • Direct payment assistance when funds are available
    • Information and instruction on water conservation
atlanta water department5
Atlanta Water Department
  • Xeriscape “Water Wise Landscaping” Program Site audits
    • Evaluate the current landscape for water use needs/patterns.
    • Deliver water conservation literature & water saving devices for indoor and outdoor use.
    • Provide one-on-one instruction in the basic principles of Xeriscaping
savannah s savings strategies
Savannah’s Savings Strategies
  • Conduct unaccounted for water audits
  • Leak repair programs and meter calibrations
  • Fire protection and looping improvements
  • Alternate water sources for irrigation – 5 MGD of reclaimed water
  • Water conservation program
  • Conversion of light industrial & commercial groundwater use to surface water
savannah s water conservation program
Savannah’s Water Conservation Program
  • Public outreach and education
    • Mascot, “Less Waters”
    • Indoor/Outdoor Water Conservation kits
    • Water Wisdom video
    • Water Sourcebooks to schools
  • Plumbing retrofit program for residential homes has saved approximately 1.113 MG/year.
  • Plumbing retrofit for public housing complexes has saved approximately 3 MG/year.
savannah s bottom line
Savannah’s Bottom Line
  • Customer base in last 17 years increased by 17%
  • Total water production from all city wells has remained constant over the last 17 years
  • Total water leaks reduced by 65% from 3,242 leaks in 1981 to 1,131 leaks in 2000
  • Looping lines requires less system flushing
    • In 1999, 21.8 MG was needed to maintain water quality in 800 miles of distribution system
    • In 2000, only 15.0 MG was needed
beyond the backyard
Beyond the Backyard….
  • EPA Case Studies Book
  • Infrastructure Model Study
infrastructure study
Infrastructure Study
  • AWWA Fax to 3700 utilities
  • 653 responses
  • 570 with useable data
  • Data entered into MS Access Database
  • Matched with EPA Region
  • Divided into size categories based on persons served:
    • less than 10,000
    • 10,000-100,000
    • more than 100,000
data collected
Data Collected
  • Water Use
    • Average Day, Peak Day, Total Sales, and Lowest Month
  • Demographics
    • Population served, number of accounts breakdown in residential and non-residential
    • Growth and projected growth in accounts
  • Planned Investments
    • Water Supply, Treatment (current price on energy & chemicals), SWDA
benefit cost model analysis
Benefit Cost Model Analysis
  • Baseline 1999 water use projected over 30 years for residential and non-residential use.
  • Employment estimated at 49-52% from Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • Separated into Indoor and Outdoor Use
  • AWWARF Residential End Uses Study 1999
  • Energy & Chemical Costs
  • Planned Infrastructure Investments & SDWA
study conclusions
Study Conclusions
  • Water savings by 2010 estimated at 5%

increasing to 8% by 2020

  • Savings higher where indoor use is higher

(e.g., East Coast)

  • Infrastructure cost savings average $26/person

to utilities and $127/person to communities

  • $7.5 billion to utilities nationwide
  • $35 billion to communities nationwide
beyond the backyard examples
Beyond the Backyard Examples
  • Irvine Ranch Water District
  • City of Albuquerque
  • City of Cary
  • Arizona’s Public Awareness Campaign
irvine ranch water district
Irvine Ranch Water District
  • Connections: 85,000 and Population: 266,000
  • Conservation Budget: $700,000 – $2 million (funded through the excessive use penalties)
  • Conservation Rate Structure
  • Based on water budgets for all customers
  • Penalties for excessive use
  • Landscape water use has decreased approx. 50% (over 650,000 gallons per year)
irvine ranch water district20
Irvine Ranch Water District
  • Other Conservation Programs
    • Rebates/low interest loans for irrigation system and landscape upgrades
    • Monthly performance reports for 4,000 dedicated landscape meters
    • Monthly notification letters to the highest water wasters
    • Monthly conservation tips and suggested irrigation schedules provided as bill inserts
    • 80% of landscape accounts are reclaimed water
irvine ranch water district21
Irvine Ranch Water District
  • More Conservation Programs
    • Water Conservation Demonstration Garden
    • School education program
    • Residential garden workshops
    • Participation in the Orange County Landscape Performance Certification Program
    • Participate in regional ULFT programs, CII rebate and Landscape Education programs
irvine ranch water district22
Irvine Ranch Water District
  • Conservation Studies
    • X-Ray Film Processor Study – Initial savings are 98%
    • Supermarket Cooling Systems Study
    • Residential Run-off Reduction Study – Testing a real-time water based irrigation controller. Initial data showing a 70% reduction in runoff.
    • Pressure Optimization Study – Testing pressure levels for reducing “misting” and breaks in irrigation systems
    • National Sub-metering Study
    • Strawberry Reclaimed Water Study – Initial savings are nearly 1 MGY
city of albuquerque
City of Albuquerque
  • Population Served: 483,000
  • Conservation Goals
    • 30% reduction over 10 years ( 1995 -2005) Reduction in total production from 250 gpcd to 175 gpcd
    • Achieved 23% savings by 2001
    • Gpcd = 205 in 2001, down from 216 in 2000

Residential only per capita for 2001 = 144 gpcd, down 27% from the baseline of 198 gpcd

city of albuquerque24
City of Albuquerque
  • Conservation Programs
    • 2000 letters to customers with more than 10% increase in usage since 1994
    • Commercial water audit program
    • Free residential surveys to SF & MF customers
    • Toilet rebate program – 43,000 replacements to date
    • Xeriscaping – 286 customers rebated for 383,180 square feet of xeriscape conversions
    • Water-waste inspectors – visited 3000+ sites and issued more than 400 water-waste violations
city of albuquerque25
City of Albuquerque
  • More Conservation Programs
    • “Take the Plunge” media campaign
    • Outdoor Watering Time of Day restrictions – April to September
    • Water Recycling – over 3.4 MGY
    • Audit of unaccounted for water loss
  • Washing machine rebates -$100 for high efficiency machines
city of cary
City of Cary
  • Population has doubled in last 10 years
  • 75% residential, 21% commercial customers
  • 1998 average daily retail water demand 8.6MGD
  • 2028 projected is 26.7
cary s response
Cary’s Response
  • Benefit-Cost Analysis Model
  • Conservation measures chosen with B/C greater than 1.0
  • 10 year plan to reduce retail water production by 4.6 MGD (16% by 2028)
  • Emphasis on measures to reduce peak-day demand during high-volume summer months
cary s program
Cary’s Program
  • Water Reclamation Facility for 4.6 MGD
  • Conservation Rate Structure
  • New Homes Points Program
  • Residential Audits
  • Landscape Water Budgets
  • Landscape and Irrigation Codes
  • Toilet Flapper Rebates
  • Public Education