IUCN Red List Assessments:
Download
1 / 23

IUCN Red List Assessments: Examples - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 360 Views
  • Uploaded on

IUCN Red List Assessments: Examples Case Study 1 Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback Gasterosteus sp. Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp. Range

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'IUCN Red List Assessments: Examples' - omer


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Slide2 l.jpg

Case Study 1

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback Gasterosteus sp.


Slide3 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Range

The Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback is restricted to Paxton Lake, which is located on Texada Island, between Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia. Paxton Lake is small (17 ha) and has a maximum depth of about 15 m. Paxton Lake is about 90 m above sea level and the only outlet, now dammed, drops about 80 m in a series of small falls before entering Malisipina Strait, thus isolating the lake and the upper portion of the creek from the sea. There is no permanent surface flow into the lake.

Map by Jim Stamos, Biological Sciences Dept., University of Buffalo. Based on McPhail 1993

Taxonomy

The Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback is one of a pair of stickleback species in Paxton Lake that currently are being described. Both species can be referred to by the museum number of the type specimens. There are five known Texada Island Stickleback species pairs. Each pair consists of a benthic species and a limnetic species that differ in appearance, diet and habitat.


Slide4 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Population

Its population probably exceeds 100,000 individuals. Although no data exist on trends in population size, it is believed that the population is more or less stable at this time.

Habitat & Ecology

The fish lives near the bottom of the lake. Adults typically feed along the shallow lake margins predating on amphipods, midge larvae and dragonfly nymphs, snails, etc. Some small individuals feed partially on plankton. In the summer, the fish occupy the littoral zone in open, mud-bottomed situations above the deoxygenated zone, but smaller individuals (<50 mm) are usually found in shallower water. The fish prefer some cover and are often found around sunken logs. They disperse over the entire lake bottom in the winter. Spawning occurs in the shallower waters of the littoral zone and nests are usually found under cover in aquatic vegetation. Adults reach 90 mm in length. Relative to other species in the genus Gasterosteus, this species is stout, has a wide mouth, few gill rakers, and a reduced number of lateral plates and dorsal spines.


Slide5 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Threats

Previous disturbance due to mining near Paxton Lake affected the population numbers of the Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, but this has not been a threat since the mine closed. The potential introduction of exotic fish species into the lake is probably the major threat now facing the stickleback. The species of most concern are Brown Bullhead Catfish Ameiurus nebulosus and Pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus, both of which are spreading on Vancouver Island through unauthorized public transplants. At least one species pair is already known to have gone extinct in the mid 1990s due to the introduction of catfish into Lake Hadley on Lasqueti Island.

Conservation Measures

The Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). A Stickleback species recovery team has been formed and a recovery action group was formed for the Texada Island species pairs (Paxton Lake and Vananda Creek Sticklebacks) and development and implementation of a Recovery Strategy and Recovery Implementation (action) Plan is underway.


Slide6 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Is the taxon eligible for Red List assessment?

  • Species not yet fully described. But a description is underway.

  • Museum voucher references are available.

  • Distribution of the species is known.

YES


Slide7 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Can criterion A be applied?

(Population reduction at a specific rate over 10 years or 3 generations (whichever is longer) in the past, present, and/or future)

  • Past disturbance from mining activities affected the population, but time frame and scale of the effects are not given.

  • Current population appears to be stable.

NO


Slide8 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Can criterion B be applied?

(Restricted geographic range AND severe fragmentation, continuing decline and/or extreme fluctuations)

  • EOO and AOO thresholds for CR are met: isolated lake of area 17 ha (=0.17 km²) (CR B1+2).

  • Main threat is potential for introduced species, which would affect the whole lake and whole population. Therefore, only one location (CR B1a+2a).

  • BUT, there is no evidence for continuing decline in range, habitat, population size or locations (CR B1b+2b do not apply).

  • No information on fluctuations; current population appears to be stable (CR B1c+2c do not apply).

NEARLY - NT


Slide9 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Can criterion C be applied?

(Small population size and continuing decline)

  • The total population is estimated at over 100,000 individuals. The number of mature individuals therefore very likely exceeds the 10,000 threshold for Vulnerable.

  • Also, there is no evidence for continuing decline or extreme fluctuations.

NO


Slide10 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Can criterion D be applied?

(Very small or restricted population)

  • The estimated population size far exceeds the <1,000 threshold for Vulnerable.

  • But, the species is known from only one location (Paxton Lake) with a very restricted range (AOO <1 km² and 1 location) and introduced species are a real potential threat (VU D2).

YES – VU D2


Slide11 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

Can criterion E be applied?

(Quantitative analysis estimating probability of extinction in the wild)

  • No quantitative analysis has been carried out.

NO


Slide12 l.jpg

Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback, Gasterosteus sp.

NO

NT

NO

VU D2

NO

  • Criterion A:

  • Criterion B:

  • Criterion C:

  • Criterion D:

  • Criterion E:

Final assessment:

The Benthic Paxton Lake Stickleback (Gasterosteus sp.) is Vulnerable (VU D2)


Slide13 l.jpg

Case Study 2

Taylor’s Salamander Ambystoma taylori


Slide14 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Range:

Taylor’s salamander is endemic to Lake Alchichica, a saline crater lake located in eastern Puebla, Mexico, at 2,290 m above sea level. The Ambystoma salamanders occurring in the other natural lakes around Alchichica are not closely related to this species. The surface area of the lake is 2.3 km².

Taxonomy

Based on both allozymes and mtDNA, this is a very distinctive salamander. The Ambystoma salamanders occurring in other natural lakes around Alchichica are not closely related to this species.


Slide15 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Population

Even at its only known locality this is a rare species, although formerly it was common there. Divers deep in the lake have seen the species recently.

Habitat & Ecology

This salamander usually does not metamorphose, and most individuals live permanently in water. But, occasional individuals have been known to metamorphose. It breeds in the lake, and is usually found in very deep water, often more than 30 m below the surface.


Slide16 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Threats

The most serious threat to the species is water extraction and diversion resulting in the lake becoming even more saline. The water level has dropped many meters over the last two decades. Continued transformation and pollution of the lake is likely to result in the disappearance of this species. Attempts to introduce fish in the lake have failed because of its salinity.

Conservation Biology

Taylor’s salamander does not occur in any protected area. Captive breeding may be an essential short-term measure to save this species, if it is not too late. The protection of the Alchichica lake is an urgent priority. This species is protected under the category Pr (Special protection) by the Government of Mexico.


Slide17 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Is the taxon eligible for Red List assessment?

  • Description of the species has been published (Brandon, Maruska & Rumph, 1981).

YES


Slide18 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Can criterion A be applied?

(Population reduction at a specific rate over 10 years or 3 generations (whichever is longer) in the past, present, and/or future)

  • The species was formerly common and is now rare.

  • BUT, no indication of the time period over which a presumed decline has taken place or data to be able to estimate the scale of population decline.

NO


Slide19 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Can criterion B be applied?

(Restricted geographic range AND severe fragmentation, continuing decline and/or extreme fluctuations)

  • The total lake area = 2.3 km² therefore the Critically Endangered thresholds for extent of occurrence (<100 km²) and area of occupancy (<10 km²) are both met (CR B1+2).

  • Main threats are water extraction and pollution, which affect the whole lake and the whole population: only one location (CR B1a+2a).

  • Habitat quality declining (water extraction causing increased salinity), declining population (now rare, ongoing habitat degradation) (CR B1b(iii,v)+2b(iii,v)).

YES – CR B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)


Slide20 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Can criterion C be applied?

(Small population size and continuing decline)

  • Although the population is described as rare, it is difficult to estimate actual numbers of mature individuals from this.

NO


Slide21 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Can criterion D be applied?

(Very small or restricted population)

  • Population size cannot be estimated from the information given.

  • Species is restricted to only one, small location (AOO <10 km², 1 location) (VU D2).

  • Continued transformation and pollution of the lake is likely to result in the disappearance of this species.

YES - VU D2


Slide22 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

Can criterion E be applied?

(Quantitative analysis estimating probability of extinction in the wild)

  • No quantitative analysis has been carried out.

NO


Slide23 l.jpg

Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori

NO

CR B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)

NO

VU D2

NO

  • Criterion A:

  • Criterion B:

  • Criterion C:

  • Criterion D:

  • Criterion E:

Final assessment:

Taylor’s Salamander (Ambystoma taylori) is Critically Endangered: CR B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)