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Basic Characteristics of People. Definitions and sources Ways of looking at personality MBTI Big 5 Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem and self-efficacy Risk taking. Relatively Stable. Felt vs . Displayed. Definitions.

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basic characteristics of people
Basic Characteristics of People
  • Definitions and sources
  • Ways of looking at personality
    • MBTI
    • Big 5
    • Locus of control
    • Machiavellianism
    • Self-esteem and self-efficacy
    • Risk taking



Felt vs.


  • Personality: “The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others”
  • Afffect: “A broad range of feelings that people experience”
  • Emotion: “Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something”
  • Moods: “Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions”
can we assess our own personality

Known to Self?



Open Self

Blind Self


Known to Others?


Unknown Self


Can We Assess Our Own Personality ?

Johari Window

personality where from


of all 3 Factors

Personality: Where From?
  • Heredity
  • Environment
  • Situation
from personality to behavior





From Personality to Behavior


what is the mbti
What is the MBTI ?
  • A personality inventory that assesses normal psychological functioning
  • A tool to help people in organizations:
  • The MBTI measures 4 scales:
basic principles
Basic Principles
  • Individuals possess unique and different styles for the way they are energized, prefer to perceive their environments, make decisions, and how they live their lives
  • These different styles can be categorized into 16 basic styles or psychological types
  • Each type represents a set of strengths and weaknesses (situationally defined)
  • Each type needs its opposite
extroverts in general
Extroverts in General
  • Are interested in the world of other people and events
  • Like to influence others and are easily influenced
  • Are joiners — enjoy lots of activity and noise — go along with the crowd
  • Are concerned about the image they project to others — others' judgments are important.
extroverts at work
Extroverts at Work
  • Like variety and action — they are impatient with long, slow jobs
  • Act quickly, sometimes without thinking
  • Find phone calls a welcome distraction
  • Develop ideas by discussion.
extroverts and communications
Extroverts and Communications
  • Prefer face-to-face communications
  • Seek opportunities to communicate in groups
  • Communicate energy and enthusiasm — quickly, without long pauses to think
  • Focus of talk is on people and things in the external environment
  • In meetings, like talking before moving to conclusions.
extroverts recap
Extroverts - Recap
  • Do — think — do
  • Blurt it out
  • External
  • Involved with people and things
  • Outside thrust
  • Interaction and action
introverts in general
Introverts in General
  • Are interested in what is happening inside their head — understanding their inner world of thoughts, ideas, and reflections
  • Often feel lost and lonely in large crowds
  • Don't trust others and are inhibited around most people
  • Are not easily influenced by other people.
introverts at work
Introverts at Work
  • Like to work alone, to work with ideas, and will work well on one project for long periods of time
  • Don't like to be interrupted when working and when working, find phone calls intrusive
  • Like quiet so they can concentrate
  • Like to think before acting; sometimes,don't act
  • Develop ideas by reflection.
introverts and communications
Introverts and Communications
  • Prefer written over face-to-face communication
  • Keep energy and enthusiasm inside — hard to read
  • Think before responding and need to be drawn out
  • Seek opportunities to communicate one-on-one
  • In meetings, verbalize well thought out ideas.
introverts recap
Introverts - Recap
  • Think - do - think
  • Internal
  • Keep it in
  • Depth
  • Work with ideas and thoughts
  • Concentration, reflection
sensing in general
Sensing in General
  • Take in information by using their five senses
  • Are mostly concerned with the present
  • Are interested in practical matters
  • Don't trust hunches.
sensing at work
Sensing at Work
  • Seldom make errors of fact
  • Work steadily
  • Like things to be orderly, precise and clear
  • Like using experience, developed skills, and standard ways to solve problems
  • May distrust and ignore their inspirations
  • Like to present details of their work first
  • Prefer continuation of "what is", with fine tuning.
sensing and communications
Sensing and Communications
  • Like evidence, facts, details presented first
  • Want to see practical realistic applications
  • Use orderly, step-by-step approach in presentations
  • In meetings, follow the agenda.
sensing recap
Sensing - Recap
  • The five senses
  • Practical
  • Present-oriented
  • Fact, detail oriented
  • Uses established skills
  • Utility, step-by-step
intuitives in general
Intuitives in General
  • Take in information through a "sixth sense"
  • Are interested in the possibilities, in what "might be"
  • Are always looking ahead to the next idea
  • Often come up with hunches "out of the blue" and easily follow their hunches — good or bad.
intuitives at work
Intuitives at Work
  • Like solving new and complex problems
  • Like to do things with an innovative bent
  • Often make errors of fact and are impatient with details
  • Prefer change — sometimes radical — to continuation of "what is"
  • Enjoy learning a new skill more than using it.
intuitives and communications
Intuitives and Communications
  • Global schemes, with broad issues presented first
  • Want possible future challenges discussed first
  • Rely on insights and imagination to provoke discussion
  • Like suggestions to be novel and unusual
  • Bypass agenda in meetings
  • Refer to general concepts.
intuitives recap
Intuitives - Recap
  • “Sixth sense”
  • What “could be”
  • Theoretical
  • Novelty
  • Insights
  • Leap around
thinking in general
Thinking in General
  • Make decisions in a logical, fact-driven way
  • Often hurt people's feelings without knowing it
  • Organize and structure information to help in decisions.
thinking at work
Thinking At Work
  • Find it easy to be firm-minded and give necessary criticism
  • Can work in situations where people do not get along well
  • Like logical analysis to reach conclusions
  • Decide impersonally, without sufficient attention to people's wishes
  • Look at principles involved in a situation.
thinking and communications
Thinking and Communications
  • Like to be brief and concise when they talk to others
  • Are persuaded by cool, impersonal reasoning
  • Wants pros and cons of each alternative to be listed
  • Can be intellectually critical and objective
  • Present goals and objectives first
  • In a meeting, seek involvement with tasks.
thinking recap
Thinking - Recap
  • Head, not heart
  • Logical
  • Objective
  • Justice
  • Critique
  • Reason
  • Principles
  • Firm, but fair
feeling in general
Feeling in General
  • Make decisions in a personal, value-driven way
  • Heart over head
  • Concern for others.
feeling at work
Feeling at Work
  • Work best in situations where people get along well
  • Avoid telling people unpleasant things
  • Enjoy pleasing people, even in unimportant things
  • Let decisions be influenced by own and others' likes and dislikes
  • Look at underlying values in a situation.
feeling and communication
Feeling and Communication
  • Are sympathetic
  • Like to be sociable and friendly when they talk to others
  • Are persuaded by enthusiasm and personal information
  • Present points of agreement first
  • In meetings, seek involvement with people
  • Can be interpersonally appreciative.
feeling recap
Feeling - Recap
  • Heart, not head
  • Values oriented
  • Subjective
  • Mercy
  • Compliment
  • Empathy
  • Harmony
  • Compassionate
judging in general
Judging in General
  • Like to have a planned and organized life
  • Like to plan their work and work the plan
  • Like to get things settled and finished
  • Make decisions quickly
judging at work
Judging at Work
  • Set tight deadlines
  • Don't like surprises; like planned activities
  • Seek structure and schedules
  • Tend to be satisfied once they reach a decision on a thing, situation, or person
  • May not notice new things that need to be done
  • Sometimes resistant to change
judging and communications
Judging and Communications
  • State priorities and decisions clearly
  • Talk of purpose and direction, schedules and timetables
  • In meetings, focus on task at hand
  • Want advance warning
judging recap
Judging - Recap
  • Planful
  • Regulated
  • Control
  • Settled
  • Run one's life
  • Set goals
  • Decisive
  • Organized
perceptive in general
Perceptive in General
  • Like to live a spontaneous and flexible life
  • Feel closed-in by routines and schedules
  • Adapt well to change.
perceptive at work
Perceptive at Work
  • Like to leave things hanging in case last minute changes are needed
  • Often second guess their decisions
  • Postpone making decisions and unpleasant tasks that need doing
  • Enjoy flexibility in their work
  • Tend to be curious and welcome new light on a thing, situation, or person
  • Feel restricted without change.
perceptive and communications
Perceptive and Communications
  • Will discuss schedules, but uncomfortable with tight deadlines
  • Enjoy surprises and adapting to last minute change
  • Expect others to adapt to situational requirements
  • Communicate options and opportunities
  • Talk of customizing and flexibility
  • In meetings, focus on the process to be appreciated.
perceptive recap
Perceptive - Recap
  • Spontaneous
  • Go with the flow
  • Adapt
  • Gather information
  • Let life happen
  • Flexible
  • Tentative
  • Open
problem solving using type preferences
Problem SolvingUsing Type Preferences

Sensing and Intuition




problem solving model








(impact on people)

Problem Solving Model
sensing and intuition48
Sensing and Intuition
  • Sensing
    • What are the facts?
    • What exactly is the situation?
    • What has been done?
    • What am I and others doing?
    • How would an outsider look at this situation?
  • Intuition
    • What are the possibilities?
    • What other ways are there for solving this problem?
    • What do the data imply?
    • What are the implications beyond the facts?
    • What is this problem analogous to?
thinking and feeling49
Thinking and Feeling
  • Thinking
    • What are the pros and cons of each possibility?
    • What are the logical consequences of each possibility?
    • What is the cost of each?
    • What are the pleasant and unpleasant outcomes of each?
    • What is the consequence of not acting?
  • Feeling
    • How much do I care about what I gain or lose in each alternative?
    • What are the values involved for each possibility?
    • How will the people concerned react to the outcome?
    • Who is committed to carry out the solution?
    • Will the outcome contribute to individual or group harmony?
more implications of type
More Implications of Type
  • Communications
  • Time management
  • Work style
individual differences big 5
Individual Differences - Big 5
  • Extroversion (ambition, sociability)
    • Sociable, assertive, talkative, active
  • Emotional stability
    • Emotional, nervous, insecure, excitable
  • Agreeableness
    • Courteous, flexible, trusting, good-natured, cooperative
  • Conscientiousness
    • Responsible, organized, planful, persevering, willing to achieve
  • Openness to Experience
    • Imaginative, curious,original, broad minded
locus of control
Locus of Control
  • Internal: Belief that you control your own destiny
  • External: Outside forces (luck, chance) control what happens
  • Results?
    • Externals less satisfied with jobs, less involved with work
    • Internals tend to do better on jobs requiring initiative and independent action
  • The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that the ends justify the means
  • Good or bad? Depends on the requirements of the situation
machiavelli and his words
Machiavelli and His Words

…the gulf between how one should live and how one does live is so wide that a man who neglects what is actually done for what should be done learns the way to self-destruction rather than self-preservation

self esteem and self efficacy
Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy
  • A person’s degree of linking for him or herself; positive self-image
  • Levels of self-esteem
    • Global self-esteem
    • Situational self-esteem
    • Organization-based self esteem (OBSE)
    • Self-efficacy: the belief that one can perform a specific task
  • What it involves
    • How long it takes to make a decision
    • How much information you gather before making a decision
  • A basic personality variable: risk propensity
  • Good or bad? Depends on the circumstances
  • Moderate levels of risk propensity are associated with high need for achievement
risk taking
Risk Taking
  • Actual risk taking depends on
    • Individual level of risk propensity
    • Situation
  • Different situations
    • Most folks tend to avoid risks when looking at possible gains
    • Conversely, people take more risks when looking at losses
  • Escalating commitment, or throwing good money after bad
other related personality variables
Other Related Personality Variables
  • Sensing / Intuition (MBTI)
    • Sensing = look at facts
    • Intuition = look at possibilities
  • Openness to Experience (Big 5)
    • Imaginative, curious,original, broad minded
  • Locus of Control
    • Internal: Belief that you control your own destiny
    • External: Outside forces (luck, chance) control what happens
  • Self-Efficacy
    • Self-efficacy: the belief that one can perform a specific task
collective emotion the madness of crowds
Collective Emotion:The Madness of Crowds
  • Collective behavior:
    • Shared beliefs
    • Shared emotions
    • Shared motivations
  • Mass hysteria, “madness of crowds”
    • A baseless belief that spreads rapidly and widely, then dies down just as quickly
    • Often accompanied by irrational behavior
  • Examples
    • Salem witchcraft trials
    • Dutch tulip frenzy
    • dot com