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Aviation Physiology HELICOPTERS. Terminal Objectives. Be familiar with the avoidance, recognition, and treatment of hypoxia/hyperventilation, aviation related trapped gas hazards, and decompression sickness. Enabling Objectives. 1.1 Define hypoxia/hyperventilation.

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terminal objectives
Terminal Objectives
  • Be familiar with the avoidance, recognition, and treatment of hypoxia/hyperventilation, aviation related trapped gas hazards, and decompression sickness.
enabling objectives
Enabling Objectives

1.1 Define hypoxia/hyperventilation.

1.2 Recall four subjective/objective symptoms of hypoxia.

1.3 State the emergency procedures for a suspected case of hypoxia.

enabling objectives4
Enabling Objectives

1.4 State the NATOPS oxygen usage rules.

1.5 State three symptoms of hyperventilation.

1.6 State the emergency procedures for a suspected case of hyperventilation.

enabling objectives5
Enabling Objectives

1.7 Recall the causes, symptoms, and treatment of an inflight ear block, inflight sinus block, barodontalgia, and trapped intestinal gas.

1.8 Recall methods for avoiding an inflight ear block, inflight sinus block, inflight tooth pain, and trapped gas.

1.9 Define decompression sickness ( DCS)

1.10 State the situations where DCS is likely to occur.

enabling objectives6
Enabling Objectives

1.11 Distinguish between Type I and Type II DCS.

1.12 State the symptoms for Type I and Type II DCS.

1.13 State the NATOPS rules regarding scuba

diving and flying.

1.14 State the emergency treatment for suspected

DCS inflight.

aviation physiology
AVIATION PHYSIOLOGY
  • HYPOXIA
  • HYPERVENTILATION
  • TRAPPED GAS
  • DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS
causes of hypoxia
Causes Of Hypoxia
  • Cabin altitude >10K’ without O2
  • Loss of cabin pressure (KC-130)
  • Anemia (A/C exhaust, blood donation, smoking, illness)
  • Chemical and Biological Warfare
  • Blood pooling due to prolonged sitting during long flights
types of hypoxia
TYPES OF HYPOXIA
  • ANEMIC
  • HISTOTOXIC
  • STAGNANT
  • HYPOXIC
anemic hypoxia
ANEMIC HYPOXIA
  • Reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood...
    • TRAUMA
    • CARBON MONOXIDE
    • BLOOD DONATION
anemic hypoxia13
ANEMIC HYPOXIA
  • Types of toxic substances:
    • Aspirin
    • Nitrates
    • sulfanilamide's
  • Reductions due to conditions that effect red blood cell count:
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Malnutrition
    • Sepsis
histotoxic hypoxia
HISTOTOXIC HYPOXIA
  • Reduction in the ability of tissues to utilize oxygen...
    • ALCOHOL
    • DRUGS
stagnant hypoxia
Stagnant Hypoxia

Pooling increases, vision begins to fade(gray-out).

Blackout occurs due to a lack of blood to the brain.

During prolonged mission flights blood may begin to pool in the extremities

stagnant hypoxia16
Stagnant Hypoxia
  • Specific conditions:
    • Heart failure
    • Shock
    • Arterial spasm
    • Occlusion of blood vessels from tissue edema
    • Embolus
    • Thrombus
    • Plaques
    • Infarcts
slide17

18,000 ft

Sea Level

HYPOXIC

HYPOXIA

A REDUCED

AMOUNT OF

OXYGEN IN

THE INSPIRED

GASES

…ALTITUDE

slide18

HYPOXIC HYPOXIA

  • Reduction of alveolar O2 tension
  • Interferes with gas exchange in two areas:
          • Ventilation
          • Diffusion

Ventilation caused by:

          • Reduced barometric pressure
          • Laryngospasm
          • Severe asthma
          • Hypoventilation
slide19

HYPOXIC HYPOXIA

  • Reduction of alveolar O2 tension
  • Interferes with gas exchange in two areas:
          • Ventilation
          • Diffusion

Diffusion caused by:

          • Pulmonary edema
          • pneumothorax
          • Pulmonary embolism
          • Embolism
          • Congenital heart defects
subjective symptoms
SUBJECTIVE SYMPTOMS
  • Tingling sensation
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Air hunger
  • Euphoria
  • Hyperventilation
objective symptoms
OBJECTIVE SYMPTOMS
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Cyanosis
  • Confusion
  • Loss of muscular coordination
  • Unconsciousness
hypoxia treatment
HYPOXIA TREATMENT
  • OXYGEN 100%
  • CHECK EQUIPMENT
  • DESCEND
  • COMMUNICATE
  • CONTROL BREATHING
hyperventilation25
CAUSES

STRESS/ANXIEY

HYPOXIA

TREATMENT

Same as Hypoxia

SYPMTOMS

Tingling

Rapid Breathing

Hot/Cold Flashes

Visual Impairment

Dizziness

Muscle Spasms

HYPERVENTILATION
slide26

TRAPPED GAS

43,000 feet

  • EARS
  • SINUSES
  • GASTRO-INTESTINAL
  • TEETH

25,000 feet

18,000 feet

10,000 feet

Site level

ear block
EAR BLOCK
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment
ear block treatment descent
Ear Block Treatment ( Descent )
  • Valsalva…
  • Yawn, Chew, Swallow
  • Slow descent rate
  • Post Flight Ear Block:
    • Caused by absorbsion of O2 within the middle ear
      • TREATMENT = Frequent Valsalva
sinus block

FRONTALS

ETHMOIDS

SPHENOID

MAXILLARY

SINUS BLOCK
  • CAUSE
  • SYMPTOMS
  • TREATMENT
sinus block treatment
Sinus Block Treatment
  • Descend
    • Stop descent / Level Off
    • Valsalva
    • Slow descent
gi tract trapped gas
GI Tract Trapped Gas
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Prevention /

Treatment

causes of gi trapped gas
Causes of GI Trapped Gas
  • Diet (food and drinks)
  • Illness
trapped gas treatment
Trapped Gas Treatment
  • VENT
  • SLOW ASCENT RATE
  • DESCEND
barodontalgia
Causes

Symptoms

Treatment

Barodontalgia
barodontalgia treatment
Barodontalgia Treatment
  • DESCENT
  • PREVENTION:
    • “Avoid flying for 48-72 hours following major dental work”
decompression sickness
Aviation DCS Evolved Nitrogen gas in the body often attributed to a decreased atmospheric pressure. - 18K’

Type I (Non-Serious)

Bends

Skin Manifestations

Type II (Serious)

Chokes

CNS

Multiple Symptoms

DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS
factors affecting dcs
FACTORS AFFECTING DCS
  • Scuba diving
  • Hydration level
  • Repeated exposures
  • Length of time at altitude
  • Rate of ascent
  • Altitude (18,000ft)
treatment of dcs
TREATMENT OF DCS
  • 100% OXYGEN (If Available)
  • DESCEND
  • IMMOBILIZE
  • SEEK QUALIFIED MEDICAL TREATMENT
  • RECOMPRESSION ?
summary
SUMMARY
  • HYPOXIA
  • HYPERVENTILATION
  • TRAPPED GAS
  • DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS