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Principles of Grafting Terminology Scion Rootstock/Stock/Understock Scion Rooting Nurse Graft Open Ground Grafting Open Ground Budding/Bud Graft Dormant Bench Grafting Summer Bench Grafting Bottom Working Principles of Grafting Terminology (cont’d) Top-working High Working

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principles of grafting
Principles of Grafting
  • Terminology
    • Scion
    • Rootstock/Stock/Understock
    • Scion Rooting
    • Nurse Graft
    • Open Ground Grafting
    • Open Ground Budding/Bud Graft
    • Dormant Bench Grafting
    • Summer Bench Grafting
    • Bottom Working
principles of grafting2
Principles of Grafting
  • Terminology (cont’d)
    • Top-working
    • High Working
reasons for grafting
Reasons for Grafting
  • Obtain special forms
  • Difficult to propagate by alternate techniques
  • Perpetuate clonal material with advantages over seed raised stock
  • Reduce cropping time to maturity
reasons for grafting4
Reasons for Grafting
  • Obtain benefits of certain rootstocks
    • growth rates
    • resistance to diseases
    • resistance to pests
    • tolerance to different soil types
  • Encourage earlier flowering
  • Production of ‘Plus Trees’
  • Production of novelty trees (forestry)*
  • Virus indexing
reasons for grafting5
Reasons for Grafting
  • Repairing damage to trees
  • Change existing cultivar on a tree
  • To produce inter-stem trees
limitations of grafting
Limitations of Grafting
  • Additional facilities
  • skilled personnel
  • cost of purchasing rootstocks
  • Problems of incompatibility
  • Rootstocks exhibit excessive suckering
  • Possible changes in normal growth habit
factors affecting a successful graft union
Factors Affecting a Successful Graft Union
  • Skillful operator
  • proper equipment
  • comfortable working environment
  • compatible scion and stock
  • use of virus free material
  • cambial contact
  • time of year
  • proper condition of scion/stock
factors cont d
Factors (cont’d)
  • Post graft care
    • environment
    • prevent desiccation
    • prevention of pest and disease infections
    • timely removal of tie materials
formation of graft union
Formation of Graft Union
  • Cambiums from scion and stock placed in close proximity.
  • Intermingling of callus cells from cambiums of both tissue
  • Interlocking of callus tissues
  • Differentiation of continuous cambium tissue
  • New cambium tissue produce phloem on outside and xylem on inside.
graft incompatibility
Graft Incompatibility
  • Partial of complete failure of the union between scion and stock
  • Success largely determined by botanical affinity
classification of graft incompatibility
Classification of Graft Incompatibility
  • Immediate graft incompatibility
  • Partial delayed incompatibility
  • Fully delayed incompatibility
symptoms of graft incompatibility
Symptoms of Graft Incompatibility
  • Overgrowths by rootstock/ scion
  • Low success rate of scion growth
  • Lack of overall vigor of the tree
  • Premature fall color and leaf drop
  • Excessive suckering of rootstock and dieback of scion
  • Mechanical weakness in union
overcoming graft incompatibility
Overcoming Graft Incompatibility
  • Use correct rootstock
  • Virus free material
  • Double working
  • Technique
  • Prior knowledge/technical information