Principles of Grafting - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Principles of Grafting

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  1. Principles of Grafting • Terminology • Scion • Rootstock/Stock/Understock • Scion Rooting • Nurse Graft • Open Ground Grafting • Open Ground Budding/Bud Graft • Dormant Bench Grafting • Summer Bench Grafting • Bottom Working

  2. Principles of Grafting • Terminology (cont’d) • Top-working • High Working

  3. Reasons for Grafting • Obtain special forms • Difficult to propagate by alternate techniques • Perpetuate clonal material with advantages over seed raised stock • Reduce cropping time to maturity

  4. Reasons for Grafting • Obtain benefits of certain rootstocks • growth rates • resistance to diseases • resistance to pests • tolerance to different soil types • Encourage earlier flowering • Production of ‘Plus Trees’ • Production of novelty trees (forestry)* • Virus indexing

  5. Reasons for Grafting • Repairing damage to trees • Change existing cultivar on a tree • To produce inter-stem trees

  6. Limitations of Grafting • Additional facilities • skilled personnel • cost of purchasing rootstocks • Problems of incompatibility • Rootstocks exhibit excessive suckering • Possible changes in normal growth habit

  7. Factors Affecting a Successful Graft Union • Skillful operator • proper equipment • comfortable working environment • compatible scion and stock • use of virus free material • cambial contact • time of year • proper condition of scion/stock

  8. Factors (cont’d) • Post graft care • environment • prevent desiccation • prevention of pest and disease infections • timely removal of tie materials

  9. Formation of Graft Union • Cambiums from scion and stock placed in close proximity. • Intermingling of callus cells from cambiums of both tissue • Interlocking of callus tissues • Differentiation of continuous cambium tissue • New cambium tissue produce phloem on outside and xylem on inside.

  10. Graft Incompatibility • Partial of complete failure of the union between scion and stock • Success largely determined by botanical affinity

  11. Classification of Graft Incompatibility • Immediate graft incompatibility • Partial delayed incompatibility • Fully delayed incompatibility

  12. Symptoms of Graft Incompatibility • Overgrowths by rootstock/ scion • Low success rate of scion growth • Lack of overall vigor of the tree • Premature fall color and leaf drop • Excessive suckering of rootstock and dieback of scion • Mechanical weakness in union

  13. Overcoming Graft Incompatibility • Use correct rootstock • Virus free material • Double working • Technique • Prior knowledge/technical information

  14. Grafting Methods

  15. Budding Methods