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ENERGY 211 / CME 211. Lecture 2 September 24, 2008. Evolution. In the beginning, we all used assembly That was too tedious, so a very crude compiler for FORTRAN was built FORTRAN was still too painful to work with, so ALGOL 60 was created

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energy 211 cme 211

ENERGY 211 / CME 211

Lecture 2

September 24, 2008

  • In the beginning, we all used assembly
  • That was too tedious, so a very crude compiler for FORTRAN was built
  • FORTRAN was still too painful to work with, so ALGOL 60 was created
  • ALGOL 60 merged with COBOL to form CPL, for both science and business
evolution cont d
Evolution, cont’d
  • CPL was too large and complex, so it was simplified to obtain BCPL
  • BCPL was stripped down even more for systems programming, leading to B
  • B was stripped down too much for more advanced operating systems, so it was enhanced to create C
from c to c
From C to C++
  • Bjarne Stroustrup wanted a language that was efficient, like C, AND suitable for development of large applications, like SIMULA
  • He enhanced C with SIMULA-like features to create “C with classes”
  • Rick Mascitti first used the name C++
  • First commercial release in 1985
design considerations
Design Considerations
  • There is no lower-level language between C++ and machine language (can write assembly in C++, but few do)
  • For backward compatibility, any valid C program is a valid C++ program
  • Unlike other languages, C++ supports multiple programming paradigms, such as procedural, object-oriented, generic, functional, etc.
from the text you type to the program you run
From the Text you Type to the Program you Run
  • As with other languages, you type your source code into source files, using the editor of your choice
  • A C++ compiler translates the source code into object code, after checking for errors
  • A linker combines your object code with other object code from existing libraries to create an executable file
tools needed for projects
Tools Needed for Projects
  • Projects will be submitted electronically and graded on the elaine workstations
  • Must have ssh client to connect
  • Must be able to edit files in UNIX/Linux (with vi or emacs, for example), or transfer them using SecureFX
  • Must be able to use GNU C++ compiler
  • Visit for needed software
very basic vi usage
VERY Basic vi Usage
  • Type i to enter insert mode
  • Use ESC key to exit insert mode
  • Commands (when not in insert mode):
    • h: left, l: right, j: down, k: up
    • x: delete character at cursor
  • Colon takes you to command prompt. There, use w to save, and q to exit
  • Resource for learning vi:
creating executables in linux
Creating Executables in Linux
  • The c++ command invokes the GNU C++ compiler on given source files, indicated by .cpp extension
  • By default, it will also invoke the linker to create an executable
    • Use –c option to only create an object file which has .o extension
  • By default, executable is called a.out
    • Use –o option to specify another name
    • Can be run from the command prompt
dissecting hello cpp
Dissecting hello.cpp

// #include is a preprocessor directive that

// specifies a header file to be included in the

// program (in this case, iostream)

#include <iostream>

// When a program is run, its main function is

// invoked. It returns an integer (int) value

// indicating its status (not done here, though)

int main()


// std::cout denotes the “standard output”

// device, which is normally the screen. The

// << operator, in this case, is used to

// write data to this device.

std::cout << "Hello world!" << std::endl;


delegating or modularity
Delegating (or: Modularity!)

hello.cpp: (subroutine)

#include <iostream>

void say_hello() // void means “does not return a value”


std::cout << "Hello world!" << std::endl;


hellomain.cpp: (main program)

void say_hello(); // external functions must be declared

int main()


say_hello(); // main passes the buck to say_hello


compiling multiple files
Compiling Multiple Files

Neither hello.cpp nor hellomain.cpp is a complete program, so we use –c to compile only, and not link

bramble06:~/demo211> c++ -c hello.cpp

bramble06:~/demo211> c++ -c hellomain.cpp

The previous commands created object (.o) files, which are now linked to create the executable program “hello”

bramble06:~/demo211> c++ -o hello hello.o hellomain.o

The ls command lists the current directory (like dir in Windows). The a.out is from before

bramble06:~/demo211> ls

a.out hello hello.cpp hello.o hellomain.cpp hellomain.o

The “.” is used to denote the current directory, which, by default, is not in the search path used to locate programs

bramble06:~/demo211> ./hello

Hello world!


managing projects with make
Managing Projects with make
  • Managing projects with several source files can be tedious
  • When you modify a source file, you need to recompile that file, and re-link
  • The make command recompiles any out-of-date files automatically
  • Useful for tasks such as cleaning up unnecessary files or changing compiler options
creating makefiles
Creating Makefiles
  • The make command uses a file called Makefile to determine how to proceed
  • Makefile contains rules of the form

target: prerequisites


where command builds target from the prerequisites

  • Can define variables for convenience
sample makefile
Sample Makefile

# All object files that must be linked into final executable

OBJ= hello.o hellomain.o

# Rule for building executable from object files

# $@ is shorthand for the target of the rule

hello: ${OBJ}

c++ -o $@ ${OBJ}

# Rule for compiling individual sources files into object files

# $< is shorthand for the first prerequisite

${OBJ}: %.o: %.cpp

c++ -c $<

# Rule to clean up all output files


rm -f hello ${OBJ}

using make
Using make

With the Makefile, building executable is easy!

bramble06:~/demo211> make

c++ -c hello.cpp

c++ -c hellomain.cpp

c++ -o hello hello.o hellomain.o

Reset hello.cpp’s modified time to force recompile

bramble06:~/demo211> touch hello.cpp

Note that only hello.cpp is recompiled

bramble06:~/demo211> make

c++ -c hello.cpp

c++ -o hello hello.o hellomain.o

This removes all output files

bramble06:~/demo211> make clean

rm -f hello hello.o hellomain.o

alternative approaches
Alternative Approaches
  • Can edit source files on your computer, and transfer using SecureFX (available on Essential Software page), or Fetch if you’re using a Mac
  • Can do all of your work in Windows using MinGW Developer Studio
  • In this case, should still compile and run final program on elaine before submitting
mingw developer studio
MinGW Developer Studio
  • Abbreviated as MDS
  • Available from
  • MDS is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE), with editing, compiling and debugging performed inside the studio
  • Uses gcc compiler
what about mac users
What About Mac Users?
  • Mac OS X is built on top of FreeBSD UNIX, so Linux discussion applies
  • Can use ssh to connect to elaine
  • OS X does not come with GNU compilers
  • Can obtain freely from Apple Developer Connection by downloading xcode package (registration required)
  • Visit
next time
Next Time

Learning some fundamentals of C++

  • Program Structure
  • Simple Variables
  • Literals
  • Types
  • Basic Exception Handling