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Geology 1001/1101. Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 12: climate and glaciation. Chapter 10. THE CLIMATE SYSTEM AND GLACIATION. Key ideas about climate & glaciation. Much of Minnesota’s landscape has been sculpted by glaciers

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Geology 1001/1101

Sec 003 Chris Paola

Class 12: climate and glaciation


Chapter 10

Chapter 10

THE CLIMATE SYSTEM

AND GLACIATION


Key ideas about climate glaciation
Key ideas about climate & glaciation

  • Much of Minnesota’s landscape has been sculpted by glaciers

  • Glacial cycles are controlled by variation in Earth’s orbit on time scales of 10,000 – 100,000 yr

  • Climate  weather; climate is long-term average of weather


Climate planetary controls
Climate: planetary controls

  • Distance from Sun

  • Albedo (reflectivity or “whiteness”)

  • Atmosphere (greenhouse effect)

  • Orbital properties

  • Plate configuration (mainly due to effect on ocean circulation)


Climate geographic controls
Climate: geographic controls

  • Distance from equator

  • Average air flow & pressure

  • Distance to the ocean

  • Prevailing wind relative to mountains & ocean


Cold

Hot

NOT distance to Sun!

92,900,000 miles

3,900 miles



10% of sunlight spread across 6.5% of sunlit surface

at equator, Earth’s surface is almost perpendicular

to sunlight, so energy is concentrated in small area


10% of sunlight spread across 6.5% of sunlit surface

~ 150% of average intensity

at equator, Earth’s surface is almost perpendicular

to sunlight, so energy is concentrated in small area


10% of sunlight spread across 20.5% of sunlit surface

10% of sunlight spread across 6.5% of sunlit surface

~ 150% of average intensity

at poles, Earth’s surface slopes away from sunlight,

so energy is spread across a greater area


10% of sunlight spread across 20.5% of sunlit surface

< 50% of average intensity

10% of sunlight spread across 6.5% of sunlit surface

~ 150% of average intensity

at poles, Earth’s surface slopes away from sunlight,

so energy is spread across a greater area


Cold

Hot

due to the angle of the Earth’s surface



dry

wet

dry

Earth: 3 cells per

hemisphere


Energy and power
Energy and power

  • Energy (work)

    • Joules

    • BTUs: 1 BTU = 1055 J

    • Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = 3600000 J

    • Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J

  • Power: energy per time (energy rate)

    • 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt

    • 1 HP = 746 Watt

  • US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)



Importance of the ocean in climate
Importance of the ocean in climate

  • Heat storage (heat capacity of water >> that of air)

  • Heat and moisture transport



Importance of the ocean in climate1
Importance of the ocean in climate

  • Heat storage (heat capacity of water >> that of air)

  • Heat and moisture transport

now onto the cryosphere…



El ni o
El Niño

Warm, rising air here  lo pressure 

helps maintain the wind pattern


El ni o movie
El Niño movie




Minnesota in the ice age
Minnesota in the ice age

Thanks to MN State U












Minnesota glacial features2
Minnesota glacial features

Thanks to geologyclass.org


Minnesota glacial features3
Minnesota glacial features

Big Stone Moraine, Traverse Cty

End moraine, Freeborn Cty

Moraine map, S Minnesota


Minnesota glacial features4
Minnesota glacial features

Superior Lobe till, central MN, thanks to Karen Kleinspehn



Minnesota glacial features6
Minnesota* glacial features

*OK, Saskatchewan

Drumlins


Minnesota glacial features7
Minnesota* glacial features

*OK, Wisconsin

Drumlin field near Green Bay



Minnesota glacial features9
Minnesota* glacial features

*OK, S. Dakota

Esker, Oakwood Lake



Minnesota glacial features11
Minnesota glacial features

Esker, Finlayson MN


Minnesota glacial features12
Minnesota* glacial features

*OK, Wisconsin

Esker


Speaking of glaciers and volcanoes
Speaking of glaciers and volcanoes…

Word of the day: jokulhlaup


Jokulhlaup
Jokulhlaup

Former bridge


Our own version
Our own version…

Montana/Idaho glacial lakes



Evidence for a similar flood in the english channel
Evidence for a similar flood in the English channel

(S. Gupta, Imperial College London)





NH summer when Earth farthest from Sun

NH winter when Earth farthest from Sun: favors glaciation

23 kyr


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