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Ancient Greece. World History Chapter 5. Greek Geography. Greek city-states developed into the Med. Region Aegean Sea separates Balkan peninsula from Asia minor Many mountains; no important river Grew grapes, olives Lots of coastline for trading. Minoan Civilization. Island of Crete

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ancient greece

Ancient Greece

World History

Chapter 5

greek geography
Greek Geography
  • Greek city-states developed into the Med. Region
  • Aegean Sea separates Balkan peninsula from Asia minor
  • Many mountains; no important river
  • Grew grapes, olives
  • Lots of coastline for trading
minoan civilization
Minoan Civilization
  • Island of Crete
  • Painted frescoes (made of wet plaster on walls)
  • Bad soil; used sea for trading
  • Volcanoes destroyed island and invaders finished the job to kill off survivors
mycenaeans dorians
Mycenaeans & Dorians
  • Invaders from the north
  • Built cities on Peloponnesus (Tiryns and Pylos) – city of Troy was also destroyed
  • After the Mycenaeanswere destroyed, the Dorians took over
early greece
Early Greece
  • Created city-states like Athens and Sparta
  • Polis – Greek word for city-state (means “fort”)
  • Chora – the surrounding land outside the city walls
  • Greek city-states had:
    • Small size
    • Small population
    • Had a fort (polis) on a hill (acropolis)
    • Had public meeting place (agora) - market
early greece continued
Early Greece Continued
  • City-states had a similar gov’t which grew into small kingdoms
  • Age of Kings
  • Oral communication between kingdoms
  • Poets and bards told tales, sang folk songs, ballads, and epics (long poems describing heroes and great events)
iliad and odyssey
Iliad and Odyssey
  • Written by Homer (a blind poet)
  • Iliad describes the 10th year of Trojan War
  • The Odyssey describes the adventures of Odysseus
greek religion
Greek Religion
  • Not focused on morality
  • Not focused on the afterlife
  • Hades – god of the underworld
  • Believed their gods had human qualities
  • Lived on Mount Olympus
  • Developed myths (stories about deeds of the gods)
greek gods
Greek Gods
  • Zeus – god of all gods (sky)
  • Hera – his wife and sister (women and protection)
  • Poseidon – brother of Zeus (sea)
  • Athena – daughter of Zeus (wisdom)
  • Aphrodite – daughter of Zeus (love, beauty)
  • Apollo – light, music, poetry
  • Dionysus – fertility and wine
early greek development
Early Greek Development
  • 700 B.C. - nobles rose to power (they gave men to kings to serve in the military)
  • Merchants developed
  • Colonies developed (increased trade)
  • Developed imports and exports (goods brought in or taken out to other regions)
greek governments
Greek governments
  • Nobles controlled city-states (aristocracies – privileged social class)
  • Tyrants – controlled by force; ruled alone
  • They always promised peace and prosperity and to defend against nobles
  • They helped maintain peace to better trade
  • Some got rid of tyrants and restore monarchies and aristocracies; others formed democracies (gov’t in which all citizens take part)
  • Dorians move south and conquer Sparta and make it their capital
  • Sparta had no city walls
  • 3 types of men in Sparta
    • Ancestors of Dorian invaders – controlled the government
    • Neighbors – free people but not citizens
    • Helots – agriculture laborers forced to work
info on sparta
Info on Sparta
  • Gov’t – council of elders
  • Had 5 elected ephors that oversaw everything (1 year terms)
  • Military state; weak babies left to die; 7 yr old boys lived in military barracks; bare pain; harsh; in army till 60; no shoes; 1 garment of clothing
  • Age 30 – married a healthy female
  • No art, literature, philosophy, science
  • No upper-class invaders like Sparta
  • No good soil; became sea traders
  • 3 social groups
    • Top citizens – both parents
    • Metics – free but could not own land
    • Slaves
  • Only citizens that owned land could vote
athens government
Athens Government
  • Elected 9 archons (rulers that served 1 year terms) that made all laws
  • Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleishenes moved Athens gov’t closer to democracy
  • All males over 20 voted in an assembly (direct democracy) compared to the U.S. (representative democracy)
athens economy
Athens Economy
  • Farming – most honorable job
  • Athens had bad soil that was hard & rocky; terracing was used
  • Sheep, goats, milk, cheese, wool, meat, fish = trading
  • Built temples, buildings, houses (made of sundried brick)
  • Oil lamps lighting, no plumbing, had narrow streets, no paving, no sewage, no cleaning
athens life
Athens Life
  • Marriage – arranged by parents (13 yr old girls to 28 yr old men was not uncommon)
  • Babies left to die if family could not afford to support
  • Married women had some legal rights but needed permission from husband to go in public
  • Pedagogue – male slave that took care of male babies and taught manners
athens education
Athens Education
  • Boys attended school if $ was good
  • Studied grammar, math, reading, music
  • Read the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Sophist (Greek for wise) – taught older boys; they studied poetry, gov’t, ethics, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric (Public speaking or debating)
  • 18 yr old boys attended military training; 19 yr old boys had celebration for becoming a citizen
elsewhere in the world
Elsewhere in the world…
  • 546 B.C. – Cyrus of Persia conquered Greece
  • Persians let the Greeks keep gov’t but made them pay taxes
  • 499 B.C. – rebellions broke out (Persian Wars)
  • Cyrus’ son Darius crushed the revolts
  • Still mad at Greece but couldn’t conquer Athens and peace ensued for 10 years
persian wars continued
Persian Wars continued…
  • Darius’ son Xerxes (army of 200,000) marched south and Athenians fled to Salamis (island)
  • Persians destroyed Athens
  • But Xerxes’ navy was destroyed and he fled home
  • This gave Greece confidence (Golden Age) and they built huge temples and public buildings
persian wars continued1
Persian Wars continued…
  • Greek city-states banded together and formed the Delian League (140 states)
  • Gave $ and ships; could not retreat unless unanimous
  • By 450 B.C. it became the Athens empire
  • Pericles – greatest leader for 16 years
a new war on the horizon
A New War on the Horizon
  • Athens and Sparta still had cultural differences
  • Athens – progressive, commercial, culturally advanced
  • Sparta – agricultural, conservative, culturally backward
  • Athens thought Spartans were rude and Sparta thought Athens was money hungry
breakout peloponnesian war
Breakout – Peloponnesian War
  • Sparta invades Attica – the area around Athens
  • Athenians withdraw to inside their walls but catch a plague that kills ¼ of their pop. (including Pericles)
  • Peloponnesian War lasts from 431 B.C. till 404 B.C. when Athens finally surrenders
  • Spartans mistreat Athenians but Thebes comes in & eventually kill off the Spartans