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UNIT 5. AN ADDITIVE APPROACH TO PLANNING IN PLURILINGUAL CLASSROOMS. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION RESEARCH. UNIT 5 – 1.- REASONS TO SUPORT MOTHER TONGUE. Develop personal identity. It is vital to the maintenance of our cultural heritage.

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unit 5

UNIT 5

AN ADDITIVE APPROACH TO PLANNING

IN PLURILINGUAL CLASSROOMS.

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION RESEARCH

unit 5 1 reasons to suport mother tongue
UNIT 5 – 1.- REASONS TO SUPORT MOTHER TONGUE
  • Develop personal identity.
  • It is vital to the maintenance of our cultural heritage.
  • It is central to the access of skills that support cognitive development.
  • It helps to promote intercultural understanding.
  • It promotes additive bilingualism and prevents from subtractive bilingualism.
  • THE MINORITY IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE MAKES ENRICHMENT. (EU).
unit 5 2 bilingualism what is it
UNIT 5.- 2. BILINGUALISM. WHAT IS IT?
  • Social and emotional conditions for learning that value all languages and cultures and affirm the identity of each learner and promote self ESteem. (Baccalaureate Organization in 2007).
  • Additive bilingualism is defined as the kind of bilingualism which does not replace that of the mother tongue. (ENRICHMENT).
  • Subtractive bilingualism which does not affirm identity and result in learners with poor self esteem,because another language has replaced that of mother tongue. (Lambert).(COMPENSATORY OR MANTEINANCE).
unit 5 3 jim cummins the common underlying proficiency theory1
UNIT 5.- 3. JIM CUMMINS, THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY
  • There is an interdependence theory between languages:
    • The proficiency from L1 to another language (L2) will occur provided there is adequate exposure and motivation to learn L2.
    • The first and second languages have a common underlying proficiency (CUP).
      • The underlying cognitive/academic proficiency skills (CALP) are common across languages (semantic and functional meaning) that allows for the transfer of academic skills from on language to another.
unit 5 3 jim cummins the common underlying proficiency theory2
UNIT 5.- 3. JIM CUMMINS, THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY
  • With enough time and good instruction, the individuals’ two languages are interdependent and come to exist within one central processing system.
  • Literacy skills which can be transferred:

- Directionality.

- Sequencing.

- Ability to distinguish shapes and sounds.

- Knowledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction.

- Activation of semantic and syntactic knowledge.

- Knowledge of text structure.

- Learning to use cues to predict meaning.

- Awareness of the variety of purposes for reading and writing.

- Confidence in oneself as a reader and writer.

unit 5 3 jim cummins the common underlying proficiency theory3
UNIT 5.- 3. JIM CUMMINS, THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY
  • Skills do not transfer:

- Critical and Cultural literacy, for example in order to make interpretations of a text given a specific cultural world view.

unit 5 4 jim cummins the iceberg methaphore
UNIT 5.- 4 JIM CUMMINS. THE ICEBERG METHAPHORE
  • The part of the iceberg which is immediately visible, above the water line, is the Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS):language needed to interact in socials contexts, language used in everyday communication or informal settings.
  • Below the water line, we find the Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): formal academic learning.
unit 5 4 jim cummins the iceberg methaphore1
UNIT 5.- 4 JIM CUMMINS. THE ICEBERG METHAPHORE
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)

- Conversational fluency: social language, ability to converse and understand everyday discussions.

- Includes “Silent Period”

- Lasts 1 – 3 years

- Early production: 1000 words (0-1 year)

- Speech Emergence: 3000 words (1-2 years)

unit 5 4 jim cummins the iceberg methaphore2
UNIT 5.- 4 JIM CUMMINS. THE ICEBERG METHAPHORE
  • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)

- Academic proficiency: “school” language, ability to read, write, speak and listen at an academic level

- Intermediate fluency: 6000 words (1-5 years)

- Advanced and continuing language development: 7000 words+ (5-7 and even 10 years)

  • Thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, reading comprehension strategies and writing processes are intrinsically related to CALP.
unit 5 5 factors affecting l2 acquisition the interlanguage selinker
UNIT 5.- 5. FACTORS AFFECTING L2 ACQUISITION. THE INTERLANGUAGE. SELINKER.
  • Language transfer refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from their native language to a second language. When the structure of both languages is the same, linguist interference can result in correct language production called positive transfer.
unit 5 5 factors affecting l2 acquisition the interlanguage selinker1
UNIT 5.- 5. FACTORS AFFECTING L2 ACQUISITION. THE INTERLANGUAGE. (SELINKER).

- The interference or negative transfer: speakers and writers transfer items and structures that are not the same in both languages.

- False friends.

- Use of auxiliaries for the negation and question.

Ex; I not want to go, I not want go/I don’t want to go

Ex; want you? Do you want?

- The third person singular

Ex; she not goes, she not go, /she doesn’t go

- The use of Indirect personal pronouns as subject pronouns.

Ex¸Me no like

unit 5 5 factors affecting l2 acquisition the interlanguage selinker2
UNIT 5.- 5. FACTORS AFFECTING L2 ACQUISITION. THE INTERLANGUAGE. (SELINKER)
  • Language transfer produces distinctive forms of learning English, depending on the speaker's first language.
    • Code-switching: people who speak parts of two languages, exchanging words to English in the same sentence (SPAINGLISH). (Speakers practice code switching when they are each fluent in both language).
    • Intraword switching: a word, itself, is formed as a mix of morpheme or prefix boundary.
    • Interlanguage(Selinker): emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language who has not become fully proficient yet, but is approximating the target language: preserving some features of their first language or over generalizing target language rules in speaking or writing the target language.
unit 5 5 factors affecting l2 acquisition the interlanguage selinker3
UNIT 5.- 5. FACTORS AFFECTING L2 ACQUISITION. THE INTERLANGUAGE. (SELINKER)
  • Sometimes the correct option starts to be used at the same time that the kid stills uses the incorrect one.
  • That means that correct feedback is being produced and the mistake is not at the stage of fossilization.
unit 5 6 interactionists krashen
UNIT 5.- 6. INTERACTIONISTS. KRASHEN
  • Assumptions:

- Children’s language development results from the interaction between the learner and language environment, assisted by innate cognitive processes.

- Adults tend to address young children using modified input.

- ESL learners need interaction with proficient speakers of English; they need modified or comprehensible input to make sense of the language. - Learners need background knowledge in the subject area to relate to the context and the language level of the lesson must not be too far above the learner’s current level

- Learners then need to be given opportunities to produce meaningful output and receive feedback

unit 5 6 interactionists krashen1
UNIT 5.- 6. INTERACTIONISTS. KRASHEN
  • Stephen Krashen is a linguist, educational researcher, and activist.
  • He is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition.
  • During the past 20 years, he has published well over 100 books and articles and has been invited to deliver over 300 lectures at universities throughout the United States and Canada.
unit 5 6 interactionists krashen2
UNIT 5.- 6. INTERACTIONISTS. KRASHEN
  • Most recently, Krashen promotes the use of free voluntary reading during second language acquisition, which he says "is the most powerful tool we have in language education, first and second”.
  • "Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." Stephen Krashen