ch 45 hormones and the endocrine system n.
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Ch 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System. HOMEOSTASIS = maintaining steady state in body functions. IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS, there are 3 functional components…. Receptor/sensor : detects a stimulus Ex: increase in blood osmolarity

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in order to maintain homeostasis there are 3 functional components
IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS, there are 3 functional components…
  • Receptor/sensor: detects a stimulus
    • Ex: increase in blood osmolarity
  • Control center: compares to set point & sends out a stimulus
    • Ex: osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus; sends signal to pituitary gland
  • Effector: responds to control center
    • Ex: pituitary gland releases ADH into bloodstream

*negative feedback maintains homeostasis!

  • HORMONE = a chemical signal secreted into body fluids (usually blood); communicates regulatory messages within the body.
  • TARGET CELLS = cells equipped to respond to specific hormones
internal communication regulation
  • 2 systems: Nervous & Endocrine
    • Nervous System: conveys high speed electrical signals along neurons
    • Endocrine System: all of an animal’s hormone-secreting cells
  • Local Regulators
endocrine system

- ENDOCRINE GLANDS = hormone-secreting organs

(“ductless glands” –

they secrete hormones

directly into blood/fluid to target cells throughout the body)

**overlap with the nervous system includes:

- NEUROSECRETORY CELLS: specialized nerve cells that secrete hormones into the blood

local regulators

LOCAL REGULATORS: non-hormones that affect nearby (“local”) cells

  • Ex #1: Growth Factors

-some peptides and proteins can function as local regulators to stimulate cells to grow,

divide & develop normally

growth factor that stimulates fibroblast cells (skin cells)to divide

local regulators1
  • Ex #2: Prostaglandins (PGs)

-modified fatty acids

in semen, stimulate contraction of the smooth muscles of the wall of the uterus; helps sperm reach the egg

from placenta, stimulates uterus

muscles to contract in labor

in immune system, help

to induce fever, inflammation,

intensify pain

how do chemical signals work
How do Chemical Signals Work?
  • each chemical signal has a specific shape (recognized by target cell receptor);
  • hormone binds to specific receptor on or in the target cell (cells are unresponsive if they lack the appropriate receptor);
how do chemical signals work1
How do Chemical Signals Work?

-binding of a chemical signal to a receptor protein triggers chemical events within the target cell:

  • Binds to receptor on plasma membrane, OR
  • Binds to receptor INSIDE the cell