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The Periodic Table of Elements. Elements. Science has come along way since Aristotle’s theory of Air , Water , Fire , and Earth . Scientists have identified 92 Natural elements , and created about 28 others. Elements.

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Presentation Transcript
elements
Elements
  • Science has come along way since Aristotle’s theory of Air, Water, Fire, and Earth.
  • Scientists have identified 92 Natural elements, and created about 28 others.
elements1
Elements

The elements, alone or in combinations, make up our bodies, our world, our sun, and in fact, the entire universe.

periodic table
Periodic Table
  • A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position on the period table.
  • Understanding the organization and plan of the periodic table will help you obtain basic information about each of the 118 known elements.
properties of metals
Properties of Metals

Metals appear to the left of the dark ziz-zag line on the periodic table. Most metals are solidat room temperature.

properties of metals1
Properties of Metals

Metals have luster. This means they are shiny

properties of metals2
Properties of Metals

Ductile

metals can be drawn into wire.

properties of metals3
Properties of Metals

Malleable

metals can be hammered into sheets

properties of metals4
Properties of Metals

Metals have a high melting point. They are also very dense.

properties of metals5
Properties of Metals

Conductors

Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat

properties of metals6
Properties of Metals

A chemical property of metal is its reaction with water and oxygen. This results in corrosionand rust.

properties of nonmetals
Properties of Nonmetals

Nonmetals occur to the rightof the dark zig-zag on the periodic table. Although Hydrogen is in family 1, it is also a nonmetal. Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature.

properties of nonmetals1
Properties of Nonmetals

Nonmetals do not have luster; they aredull.

properties of nonmetals2
Properties of Nonmetals

Brittle

Nonmetals are brittle so they breakeasily. This means nonmetals ARE NOTductileormalleable.

properties of nonmetals3
Properties of Nonmetals

Nonmetals have low density.

properties of nonmetals4
Properties of Nonmetals

They also have a low melting point. This is why they are poor conductors of heatand electricity.

properties of metalloids
Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids can be found clustered around the dark zig-zag line that separates metals and nonmetals.

properties of metalloids1
Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

properties of metalloids2
Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids are solids that can be shiny or dull.

properties of metalloids3
Properties of Metalloids

They conduct electricityandheat better than nonmetals but not as well as metals.

properties of metalloids4
Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids are malleableand ductile

families
Families
  • Families in the periodic table share chemical properties because all elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons
  • This means that all elements in a family bond with other atoms in a similar way.
properties of metals7
Properties of Metals

Most metals have 3 or less valence electrons and therefore are likely to lose these electrons in chemical bonds.

properties of nonmetals5
Properties of Nonmetals

Nonmetals have 5 or more valence electrons and therefore usually gain electrons in chemical bonds.