Inspired by a revived interest in the styles of classical antiquity in painting, sculpture, and architecture. • As a reaction to the excesses of monarchy during the Baroque and Rococo periods artist wanted to return order, reason, and structural clarity. • Strong fascination of Greek and Roman culture during the 18th century. They studied sculptors and buildings of classical Greece and Rome.
During the later part of the 18th century the revolutionary war broke out and in the end Napoleon was the new emperor. • Napoleon gave Jacques Louis David a position to be the First Painter of the Empire. • Neo-Classicism also found a new voice also found a voice in the new American democracy and in the architecture of an American “Renaissance man”, Thomas Jefferson.
Influences • Book “Thoughts on the imagination of Greek Art in painting and Sculpture” reinforced the interest and led to revival of earlier classical art. • Travel: In the 18th century travel became popular throughout Europe. Italy was a destination for both vacationing and intellectual stimulation and education.
In the mid 1700’2 excavations of the classical site Pompeii brought forth artifacts of classical antiquity and encouraged the quest for more knowledge about the Greeks and Romans. • The age of enlightenment • Seeking knowledge about Greece and Rome • Revived the classical spirit • Was the greatest influence on Neo-classical style.
Artist • Jacques Louis David • The major artist of this time • Angelica Kauffmann • Jean-Antoine Houdon • Neo-classical sculptor • Thomas Jefferson • Architect
Jacques Louis David 1745-1825 • Captured the essence of classical antiquity. • Learned to paint in the high style of the Renaissance period at the Royal academy of Paris. • Famous paintings by David: The death of Marat and The Death of Socrates influenced the public opinion during the French revolution. • These paintings demonstrated power and propaganda and was notice by Napoleon. • Napoleon hired David as court painter. • Napoleon hoped to be portrayed as a noble and confident leader who was worthy of respect • His style depicted figures in classic poses in geometric relationships that echoed the clarity of the Geeks and Romans
The Death ofMarat Oil on Canvas, 65" x 50 3/8" 1793 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Artsat Brussels • Is one of the most Famous images of the French Revolution. • Refers to the Assassination of Radical journalist Jean -Paul Marat
At the height of the Reign of Terror in 1793, David painted a memorial to his great friend, the murdered publisher, Jean Marat. • The Death of Marat, 1793 an idealized image of David's slain friend is shown holding his murderess's (Charlotte Corday) letter of introduction. • The bloodied knife lays on the floor having opened a fatal gash that functions, as does Marat's very composition, as a reference to the entombment of Christ and a sort of secularized stigmata (reference to the wounds Christ is said to have received in his hands, feet and side while on the cross)
The Death of Marat • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5MCNKLBOfo
The Death of SocratesOil on Canvas, 51" x 77 1/4" 1787 Metropolitan Museum of Art • Represents The scene of The death of Greek philosopher Socrates who was sentenced to Death by drinking hemlock. • Red robed man handing goblet to Socrates. Socrates is pointing to the heavens.
The Death of Socrates • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AQow-_VHOQ&feature=related
Accused by the Athenian government of denying the gods and corrupting the young through his teachings • Socrates (469–399 B.C.) was offered the choice of renouncing his beliefs or being sentenced to death by drinking hemlock. • David shows him calmly discoursing on the immortality of the soul with his grief-stricken disciples. Painted in 1787, the picture, with its stoic theme, is perhaps David's most perfect Neoclassical statement
Painting • Paintings captured the spirit of classical Greece and Rome • Qualities of paintings: • Costumes, settings and historical • First generation of classical painters: • Anton Raphael • Gavin Hamilton • Joseph-Marie Vien • Benjamin West • Angelica Kauffmann • Jean-Baptiste Greuze SCUPLTURE • Neo-classical sculpture incorporated the influence of Greek and Romans by representation of the ideal figure in its classical contraposto stance.
Architecture • By this time many architects had turned away form the Rococo and Baroque style. • Architects favored the more refined classical styles of the past. • Europe, England and the United Sates architect used the classical style of the Greeks. • Thomas Jefferson had great influence in the U.S.
Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826 • Drafter of the Declaration of Independence. • Third U.S.A. president. • He was also an architect and designed buildings using classical architecture. • Went to college but never receive any formal training on architecture and was mostly self taught. • He studied the works of Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio. • He studied the architectural styles of the Renaissance. • He was drawn to the qualities of the Neo-classical style. • Morality • Patriotism • Idealism • Designed his home at Monticello modeled after Palladio's marble Villa Rotunda. • Library at University of Virginia and he found inspiration in the Roman Pantheon
Monticello Home • Villa Rotunda By: Palladio
"In Monticello, his house outside Charlottesville, Vigina the Pantheon was domesticated in the great tradition of residential Pantheons, which included Palladio's Villa Rotonda. • Monticello had a cross-axial plan like its predecessors, but unlike the above stretched itself horizontally reaching out toward the sweep of its site, while service units were buried underground. • Monticello was like the primordial American home—seeking stability but also freedom, respectful of European tradition but insistent on comfort and effort-saving devices, both conventional and one of a kind.
The Monticello • http://explorer.monticello.org/index.html
Where is Monticello? • Charlottesville, Virginia • What is its meaning? • Little Mountain • When did Jefferson begin working on it? • 1769 • Distinctive Neo-classsical style with it’s dome and porticos. Sets it apart from other domestic architecture in Virgina. • Did Jefferson have any formal training when he designed Monticello himself? • No
Where did hid knowledge of architecture come from? • Books and keen observation • What is Jefferson famous for writing? • The Declaration of Independence • When was he president? • 1801-1809 • What University did he find? • University of Virgina
Univ. of Virginia Library Roman Pantheon
Vocabulary • Sculpture: three dimensional forms or forms in relief created by carving, assemblage or modeling . • Neo-classicism: A style of art in the 19th century in which artist and critics sought inspiration from the classical art of ancient Rome and Greece and imitated its themes, simplicity, order and balance. • Contraposto: In sculpture, when most of the weight is standing on one foot. • Culture: The attitudes, values, beliefs, patterns of behavior, social organization and concepts of realty of given people that persist through time. • Portrait: A pictorial representation of a person usually showing their face.