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Presentation Transcript
Draws Conclusions

Makes and Confirms Inferences

“…All learning depends on the ability to question, reason, formulate ideas, pose hypotheses, and exchange ideas with others.” -A. Browne (1996)

clarifying the benchmarks
Clarifying the Benchmarks

The Benchmarks:

Reads text and determines the main idea or essential message; identifies relevant supporting details and facts, and arranges events in chronological order.

(LA.A.2.2.1 Grades 3-5)


Draw Conclusions: uses background knowledge and text information to form an

opinion regarding information not given in a text; specifically able to draw conclusion, when, why, or something happened or who was involved in an action.

Infers: combines prior knowledge and information found in texts to predict or make a judgment.

Good readers often make inferences or draw conclusions based on the information they have. If they see a big tent and there are clowns standing outside, they would probably think that there is a circus in town. What they think is happening may not always be correct, but they make the best guesses-or inferences-they can from the information they have.

what is inferring the cornerstone of comprehension
What Is Inferring, the Cornerstone of Comprehension?

A reader makes logical connections to their

personal trove of background experiences and

knowledge to determine what the author is

implying. A proficient reader makes inferences

by “reading between the lines” to match his or

her experiences and knowledge with relevant

clues or hints provided by the author.

let s try inferring together
Let’s Try Inferring Together…

“It seemed that the pitch had barely left the

southpaw’s hand when the ballpark

resounded with a loud thwack. Morgan

dropped his head in dejection as Ramirez

began to trot the bases.”

What just happened here? What is the author implying without directly stating it? What clues did you use to figure things out?

what is drawing conclusions

What Is “Drawing Conclusions?”

A reader’s conclusions make up an overall sense of what a reading selection means. After making some inferences, readers look for connections among their inferences and observations. The connections lead to conclusions. It’s like seeing the big picture after putting the puzzle pieces together!

let s practice drawing conclusions
Let’s Practice Drawing Conclusions!

What might you conclude if you read a report that pointed out that the bald eagle is listed as an endangered animal in 43 states?

Conclusions might include 1.) that the bald eagle is considered worth protecting or 2.) that the bald eagle is in danger of dying out.

The report also explains the many reasons for the deaths of the bald eagle as well. What might you conclude from this information?

Conclusions might include 1.) that people have been investigating the causes of deaths or 2.) that correcting the problem will probably not be easy.

More Practice

Read the story and answer the questions by drawing conclusions

Maria opened her eyes and ran to the window. No, she thought, she hadn't been dreaming. Everything in front of her eyes looked unfamiliar. Instead of the bright warm sun, there were gray, cold-looking skies. There was harsh, loud noise everywhere. And she could see no warm, blue-green sea off in the distance. She thought to herself, "What is this strange new world I have come to?Suddenly, Maria heard her aunt's voice calling her. She rushed quickly to the other room. She hoped that seeing her aunt would make her feel more at home here in the United States."Well, Maria," her aunt asked, "how did you sleep your first night here?" She spoke a little slowly so that Maria wouldn't have trouble understanding her.Maria waited a moment to answer. She wanted to say everything correctly. Soon she would be in school, where she could work on her English--she wanted to be the best in her class, just as she had been back home! "Very well," she said, smiling in surprise at how clear her words sounded.
Where do you think Maria is?
  • in school
  • in her bedroom
  • at the beach
  • in a strange place
2. What kind of place has she recently come from?
  • one like the northern United States
  • a cold, snowy place
  • a hot place
  • a quiet place near the sea
How does Maria feel about speaking English?
  • like she’ll never learn English
  • a little uncertain
  • very confident
What will Maria be doing while she’s here?
  • planting flowers
  • swimming
  • participating in the Olympics
  • going to school
5. Where could Maria be from?
  • New York
  • Alaska
  • France
  • New Mexico
self questioning helps readers construct meaning and draw conclusions

Self-questioning helps readers construct meaning, and draw conclusions

Questioning and inferring

work in tandem to enhance the understanding of text.

-Harvey and Goudvis

Strategies That Work

sample question stems
Sample Question Stems:

Finish the sentence stems with statements that you could use with topics or content that you are reading in any subject..

  • What conclusions can be drawn about…?

Support your answer with information and details from the passage.

  • What conclusions can be drawn from the fact that…?
  • What examples can you find to support the conclusion that…?
  • What facts would you select to show that…?
  • What facts justify the conclusion that…?
learn to think think to learn
Effective questioning

helps us…

make predictions,

give reasons,

distinguish fact from


determine bias, &

check the validity of evidence

We remember

when asked to…

brainstorm new ideas,

think up solutions to problems,

weigh pros &cons,

make decisions, &

debate evidence.

Think Analytically!

Learn to Think…Think to Learn
comprehending reading
Comprehending Reading:

Before Reading (Prediction, Activate Schema): Make predictions or “educated guesses” about what’s to come in a text by looking at the title, subtitles, headings, illustrations, graphics and captions.

During Reading (Inference):Revise predictions based on asking yourself “What new information did I find?” and “How should I change my predictions to make them more accurate?” Then ask yourself “What new predictions can I make?”

After Reading (Conclusion): Confirm all predictions by finding and citing evidence and details from the entire passage.

synthesizing information constructing meaning and drawing conclusions

Synthesizing Information, Constructing Meaning, and Drawing Conclusions

“Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.”

~ Ellin Keene, Mosaic of Thought

lesson connections for inferring and synthesizing
Lesson Connections for Inferring and Synthesizing

Click on me!

From the authors of Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis this website has its all: Definitions, Posters, and Lesson Web Resources and Lessons. You can also select the best level for your students by choosing lesson resources by 1) Primary,

2) Intermediate, or 2) Upper.