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  1. Elisha Kennedy, Natalie Eberhart Doug Lobdell Brittney Hendrix Independent t test “Using Relaxation Techniques and Positive Self-esteem to Improve Academic Achievement of College Students”

  2. Background Information Patten, Mildred L. Education & Psychological Research, Article 27: Using Relaxation Techniques and Positive Self-esteem to Improve Academic Achievement of College Students. pgs. 149-150. 1995 The purpose of this study was to examine whether muscle relaxation increased exam scores of college students compared to students who did not use muscle relaxation.

  3. Research Question & Statistical Hypotheses • Does there appear to be sufficient evidence to conclude with at least 95% confidence that the mean Final grade for students taking a muscle relaxation class is higher than the mean for students who do not take the muscle relaxation class? • H0: µr- µc<0 H1: µr- µc>0

  4. Raw Data

  5. Decision Rule • Given: N1=20, N2=20, df=38, alpha level=.05, upper tail critical • Reject H0 if calculated t > +1.697

  6. Descriptive Statistics

  7. Calculations

  8. Decision • Reject H0 with at least 95% confidence since calculated t=1.68 is > 1.697, within rounding.

  9. Interpretation • Yes, this study does provide sufficient evidence to conclude with at least 95% confidence that muscle relaxation classes increased final examination scores for college students. • t(38)=1.68, p=.05 (one-tailed), r2=.07 (small effect size) • The average final examination score for the relaxation students was 75.70 (SD=9.64) compared to the average final examination score for non-relaxation students of 70.80 (SD=8.74). The difference between these means is not large enough to confidently conclude a difference. • The 95% confidence interval around the difference between the two group means is 3.91 to 15.69, which does not include 0.

  10. Error Bar Graph for Final Examination Scores

  11. Future Research • This study would need a larger sample size since our calculated t was just barely in the rejection area. • See if there is a difference between male and female students or university size.

  12. Conclusion • This study also gave us results for midterm grades and the results were the same.