Sept. 11 Pg. 12 Focus : Scientific Inquiry Skill: Graphs

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Sept. 11 Pg. 12 Focus : Scientific Inquiry Skill: Graphs Objective : Scientists gather and organize data Homework : data table, parent signature Warm Up : Answer Write the steps for creating a data table. What is a graph? How is it different from a data table?. How am I doing?.

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Sept. 11 Pg. 12

Focus: Scientific Inquiry Skill: Graphs

Objective: Scientists gather and organize data

Homework: data table, parent signature

• Write the steps for creating a data table.
• What is a graph? How is it different from a data table?
How am I doing?

4 columns

• Date Assessment Title Grade Signature

4 columns

• Page Number Date Focus Objective #

Identify the Axes

Y- Axis

X- Axis

Identify the Axes

Y- Axis

Dependent Variable

(what is observed and measured)

X- Axis

Independent Variable

(what is changed by the scientist)

DRY MIX

One way to remember which data goes on which axis is the acronym DRY MIX.

D.R.Y.M.I.X.

D- Dependent M- Manipulated

R- Responding I- Independent

Y- Y-axis X- X-axis

Title

• Write an appropriate title for the graph at the top.
• The title should contain both the independent and dependent variables.

Scale

• Decide on an appropriate scale for each axis.
• The scale refers to the min and max numbers used on each axis. They may or may not begin at zero.
• The min and max numbers used for the scale should be a little lower than the lowest value and a little higher than the highest value.
• This allows you to have a smaller range which emphasizes the comparisons/trends in the data.

Scale

• The Y-axis scale is from 0-100.
• The largest value though is only 35.

Scale

• The Y-axis scale is now from 0-40.
• This does a better job emphasizing the comparisons between coins.

Intervals

• Look at your minimum and maximum values you set up for both the Y and X-axis. (For most bar graphs, the X-axis will not have numerical values.)
• Decide on an appropriate interval for the scale you have chosen. The interval is the amount between one value and the next.
• It is highly recommended to use a common number for an interval such as 2, 5, 10, 25, 100, etc.

Intervals

The interval for the Y-axis is 20.

The X-axis does not have numerical data and does not need an interval.

Labels

• Both axes need to be labeled so the reader knows exactly what the independent and dependent variables are.
• The dependent variable must be specific and include the units used to measure the data (such as “number of drops”).

Labels

DV label

IV label

TAILS

T.A.I.L.S.

Title

Axis

Interval

Labels

Scale

TAILS

Title: Includes both variables

Axis: IV on X-axis and DV on Y-axis

Interval: The interval (4) is appropriate for this scale.

Label: Both axes are labeled.

Scale: Min and max values are appropriate.

Graphing Rules Notes
• Purpose of a Graph: to show data visually
• Bar graphs: used for data that is not connected, such as types of vegetables

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Dependent Variables

Title

Y axis label

Bars

Independent Variables

X axis label

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Dependent Variables

TitleVegetable Choices of Guinea Pigs

Y axis label

Percentage of Food Choice

Discontinuous Data: Bar Graph

Independent Variables Carrots Broccoli Lettuce

X axis label Food Choices

How to Make a Bar Graph

1. Dependent Variable: y-axis

2. Independent Variable: x-axis

3. Number the y-axis

4. Label the x and y-axis

5. Draw a bar for each data value

6. Label each bar

7. Give your graph a title

Graphing Rules Notes
• Purpose of a Graph: to show data visually
• Line graphs: used for data that is connected, such as over a period of time. Lines consist of connected dots.
Line Graph
• A line graph is a graph used to show change over time!!

What can time be measured in???

Seconds - Minutes - Hours – Days - Weeks - Months – Years - Decades - Centuries - etc.

When to use a line graph?

Would we use a line graph in the following situations:

• To show how many people like pizza in this class?

NO

• To show how much it rained each month this year?

YES- because months and years deal with time.

• To show how many people live in East Meadow?

NO

Y

X

How do we make a line graph?
• A line graph ALWAYS has a title!
• A line graph has two different axis’s
• An axis is either the horizontal line (called x) or the vertical line (called y) that form the base lines of a graph.

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Dependent Variables

Title

Y axis label

Points

Independent Variables

X axis label

Time in minutes

Plotting a Line graph
• When we are plotting a line graph, it is important to read what information is on each axis.
• There must be a label on each axis that describes the information.
• Much like a bar graph, we look at the x-axis first in order to plot our points.

### Bar Graphs vs Line Graphs

Bar Graphs
• Bar graphs are descriptive.
• They compare groups of data such as amounts and categories.
• They help us make generalizations and see differences in the data.
Line Graphs
• Line graphs show a relationship between the two variables. They show how/if the IV affects the DV.
• Many times, the IV plotted on the X-axis is time.
• They are useful for showing trends in data and for making predictions.