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FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT. FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT. New agr. tech ’ s (FC.63). Climate?. FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT. New agr. tech ’ s (FC.63). Colder & wetter climate in 1300s. FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT. New agr. tech ’ s (FC.63).

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slide2

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Climate?

slide3

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

slide4

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide5

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide6

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide7

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide8

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide9

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide10

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide11

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide12

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide13

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide15

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

what is the black death1
What is the Black Death?
  • YersiniaPestis
  • Fleas on Rats
  • Bubonic vs. Pneumonic
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Weakness/Fatigue
  • Buboes
  • Black/Purple Spots
  • Cough Violently/Spit Blood
  • Die within 3-5 Days
symptoms1
Symptoms
  • Weakness/Fatigue
  • Buboes
  • Black/Purple Spots
  • Cough Violently/Spit Blood
  • Die within 3-5 Days
spread of the black death1
Spread of the Black Death
  • Worse in Cities
  • 1346-1350
  • Recurrences
death toll
Death Toll
  • Why hard to tell?
death toll1
Death Toll
  • Why hard to tell?
  • Typical estimate:1/3 of population
death toll2
Death Toll
  • Why hard to tell?
  • Typical estimate:1/3 of population
  • Urban death toll
how did people react
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
slide26

     "Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them the people quickly drove the Italians from their city. However, the disease remained, and soon death was every where. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian burial."-Unknown

slide27

Personal Accounts of the Plague

"How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world! The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ship’s hold and covered with a little earth."

-Giovanni Boccaccio

slide28

Personal Accounts of the Plague

"Father abandoned child, wife husband, one brother another, for this plague seemed to strike through the breath & sight. And so they died. And no one could be found to bury the dead for money or friendship... And I, Agnolo di Tura, called the Fat, buried my five children with my own hands, and so did many others likewise.”—Agnola di Tura

how did people react1
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
  • Explanations
how did people react2
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
  • Explanations
    • Strange Theories
    • (Flawed) notion of contagiousness
    • Most Popular: Punishment from God
how did people react3
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
  • Popular Explanation: Punishment from God
  • Reactions:
how did people react4
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
  • Popular Explanation: Punishment from God
  • Reactions:
    • Strange Cures
    • Flee City
    • Quarantine
    • Scapegoats
    • Hedonism
how did people react5
How did people react?
  • Personal Accounts
  • Popular Explanation: Punishment from God
  • Reactions
  • Religious Fervor
    • “Traditional”
    • Flagellants
slide35

Such processions often included flagellants who whipped themselves to atone for society’s sins and avert the plague. Unfortunately, as such processions went from town to town, they also spread the plague, as seems to be happening in the picture to the left. Therefore, the Church to tried to ban them.

psychological impact
Psychological Impact
  • Disturbing Fascination with Death
    • Paintings, Literature, Poetry
psychological impact1
Psychological Impact
  • Disturbing Fascination with Death
    • Paintings
    • Cadaver Tombs
  • “whoever you be who will pass by, I ask you to remember, You will be like me after you die, For all: horrible, dust, worms, vile flesh”
psychological impact2
Psychological Impact
  • Disturbing Fascination with Death
    • Paintings
    • Cadaver Tombs
    • Immediacy of Death
dance of death
Dance of Death

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Totentanz_L%C3%BCbeckR.jpg

dance of death1
Dance of Death

Empress: I know, Death means me! I was never terrified so greatly! I thought he was not in his right mind, after all, I am young and also an empress. I thought I had a lot of power. I had not thought of him or that anybody could do something against me. Oh, let me live on, this I implore you

Death: Empress, highly presumptuous, I think, you have forgotten me. Fall in! It is now time. You thought I should let you off? No way! And were you ever so much, You must participate in this play, And you others, everybody—hold on! Follow me, Mr. Cardinal!

dance of death2
Dance of Death

Death to the Emperor:

Emperor, your sword won't help you out

Sceptre and crown are worthless here

I've taken you by the hand

For you must come to my dance

The Peasant Says:

I had to work very much and very hard

The sweat was running down my skin

I'd like to escape death nonetheless

But here I won't have any luck

dance of death3
Dance of Death

Wer war der Thor, werder Weise[r],

"Who was the fool, who the wise [man],

WerderBettleroder Kaiser?

who the beggar or the Emperor?

Ob arm, ob reich, imTodegleich.

Whether rich or poor, [all are] equal in death."

in the face of catastrophe
In the Face of Catastrophe
  • Christ-
  • Tho it be late ere thou mercie came: yet mercie thou shalt have.
  • Priest-
  • Commit thy body to the grave: pray Christ they soul to save
  • Death-
  • I have sought thee many a day: for to have thee to my pray
psychological impact3
Psychological Impact
  • Disturbing Fascination with Death
  • Dance of Death
  • Triumph of Death
  • In the Face of Catastrophe
  • Long-Term Impact: Religious Despair and Religious Excitment
slide48

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide49

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide50

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide52

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide53

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide54

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

  • Advantages for Peasants:

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide55

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

  • Advantages for Peasants
  • Powerful Push Back

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide56

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

  • Advantages for Peasants
  • Powerful Push Back
  • Revolts

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide57

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

  • Advantages for Peasants
  • Powerful Push Back
  • Revolts
  • Typical Pattern

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide59

The Jacquerie in 1358 was a spontaneous outburst of frustration by French peasants against the higher taxes that came from Plague & defeat in the Hundred Years War. Being spontaneous, as most peasant revolts were, the Jacquerie caught the nobles off guard and spread like “wildfire”” across the countryside. However such revolts were typically put down just as quickly. In this case, the turning point came when French knights returning from crusade encountered and massacred some rebels at the town of Meaux.

slide60

As with most peasant revolts, the Jacquerie ended in massacre when the untrained and now leaderless rebels quickly broke and ran at the first charge by the nobles’ cavalry. Punishment as always was swift and brutal. Often rebellious peasants were hanged, sometimes in their doorways as a warning to others who might be thinking about revolt.

slide61

English Peasants (Wat Tyler) Rebellion

When Adam delved and Eve did span

Who then was the gentleman?”

-Piers Plowman

The nobles treacherously murder Wat Tyler after luring him with a safe-conduct to parley

slide62

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide63

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide64

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide65

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

slide66

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

Church challenged by kings, clergy, & popular heresies in 1300s & 1400s (FC.72)

slide67

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Nobles sell serfs their freedom & land to get some quick cash In long run they lose future tax revenues

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

Church challenged by kings, clergy, & popular heresies in 1300s & 1400s (FC.72)

slide68

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

Nobles sell serfs their freedom & land to get some quick cash In long run they lose future tax revenues

Nobles decline while free peasants have incentive to work harder Agr. & ec. revival in 1400s

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

Church challenged by kings, clergy, & popular heresies in 1300s & 1400s (FC.72)

slide69

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Nobles decline while free peasants have incentive to work harder Agr. & ec. revival in 1400s

Nobles sell serfs their freedom & land to get some quick cash In long run they lose future tax revenues

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

Church challenged by kings, clergy, & popular heresies in 1300s & 1400s (FC.72)

New & broader consumer mkt. Rise of capitalism & the decline of guilds(FC.75)

slide70

FC.71 THE BLACK DEATH AND ITS IMPACT

Cities especially devastated, some losing 60-70% of their popul.

Labor shortages Workers demand higher wages & less restrictive guild membership

Tyrants & princes replace more democratic communes in N. Italy & Flanders

Polit. stability & $$ to patronize arts

Urban rev’s (e.g., in Florence, Mailloten & Caboche rev’s in Paris)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Kings & nobles try to keep peasants down & raise taxes to cover loss of tax base from plague

Peasant revolts (e.g., Jacquerie in Fr. & Wat Tyler revolt in England)

All put down after initial successes catch authorities off guard

Survivors inherit prop. & buy (now cheap) land Stand. of living 

Nobles regroup & crush peasant revolts w/savage brutality, but their reputations & military prestige are seriously hurt

Urban grain mkts wrecked Less demand Lower prices

Black Death (c.1347-1450) reduces Western Europe’s population by 30-40%

Nobles decline while free peasants have incentive to work harder Agr. & ec. revival in 1400s

Nobles sell serfs their freedom & land to get some quick cash In long run they lose future tax revenues

Black Death spreads from China along Silk Road kept open by Mongols

Growing public discontent over Church corruption & failure to give comfort or relief from plague

Church abuses to raise cash: fees for any services, & sell indulgences, dispensations, & Church offices

Hurt Church & nobles dependant on land-based econ. & selling grain for cash

New agr. tech’s (FC.63)

Colder & wetter climate in 1300s

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Mongols conquer China & most of Eurasia (FC.57)

Pop. growth More demand for food & fuel

Inflation & strain on environment Expand agr. lands

Church challenged by kings, clergy, & popular heresies in 1300s & 1400s (FC.72)

New & broader consumer mkt. Rise of capitalism & the decline of guilds(FC.75)

Wealth & more secular outlook Italian Renaissance strating in 1400s (FC.76)

conclusion black death as emblematic of late middle ages
Conclusion: Black Death as Emblematic of Late Middle Ages
  • Shortcomings of Focusing on Black Death
  • Why I did it…