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0. Chapter 15. Effective Groups and Teams. 0. Learning Objectives. Define teams and the advantages and disadvantages of teams. Identify the types of teams within organizations Explain how team size, diversity, and task interdependence affect team performance. Identify roles within teams.

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Chapter 15


Chapter 15

Effective Groups and Teams

Learning objectives


Learning Objectives

  • Define teams and the advantages and disadvantages of teams.

  • Identify the types of teams within organizations

  • Explain how team size, diversity, and task interdependence affect team performance.

  • Identify roles within teams.

  • Explain the general stages of team development.

  • Explain the concepts of team cohesiveness and team norms and their relationship to team performance.

  • Understand the causes of conflict within and among teams and how to reduce conflict.

What is a team


What is a Team?

A group whose members work together to accomplish a specific goal.

Should i use teams or not


Should I Use Teams or Not?

  • Potential Benefits of Teams

    • Can increase product and service quality

    • Often increases job satisfaction of team members

    • Employees develop multiple skills through cross-training

    • Can increase innovation



Should i use teams or not1


Should I Use Teams or Not?

  • Potential Disadvantages of Teams

    • Problem of “Social Loafing”

    • Costs or coordinating activities of team

    • Problems of group decision-making



Should i use teams or not2


Should I Use Teams or Not?

  • A team approach works best when

    • There is a clear goal or purpose for using a team

    • The job can’t get done unless people work together

    • Organizational systems support team work

      • Rewards are provided for team performance

      • Teams have authority to change how work is done.



Types of teams


Types of Teams

Self managed teams


Self-Managed Teams

An employee team which has the responsibility and autonomy to complete identifiable pieces of work

  • Includes employees with several skills and functions.

  • Team has access to resources

    Sales, costs and budget information



  • Is empowered with decision making authority

Self managed teams1


Self-Managed Teams

Keys to effective self managed teams:

  • Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to be self-managing.

  • The team’s task should be complex enough to include many different steps.

  • Select members carefully for their diversity, skills, and enthusiasm.

  • Managers should guide and coach, not supervise.

  • Determine training needs and be sure it is provided.

Team characteristics


Team Characteristics

  • Size

    • Ideal size is thought to be 7.

    • Variations of from 5 to 12 typically are associated with good team performance.

    • Small teams (2-4 members) show more agreement, ask more questions.

    • Large teams (12 or more) tend to have more disagreements.

Team characteristics1


Team Characteristics

  • Roles of Team Members

    • Task specialist role spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal.

    • Socio-emotional role support team members’ emotional needs.

    • Teams need both roles to be filled to be successful in the long run.

    • Teams with members who are mostly task specialists will tend to be unsatisfying and may disband.

    • Teams where most of the individuals have social roles will have high satisfaction but may be low in productivity.

    • Some team members play dual roles. These members often become team leaders.

Team characteristics2


Team Characteristics

  • Diversity

    • Differences in skills, experience or personality among team members

    • Teams which are diverse often have higher levels of creativity and innovation.

    • Teams which are racially and culturally diverse may have more difficulty at the beginning – miscommunication, conflicts.


  • Task Interdependence

Stages of team development


Stages of Team Development


Member get to know each other

Leader: Facilitate social interchanges



Conflict, disagreement on direction

Leader: Encourage participation, be sure conflict focused on goals



Cohesion and consensus begins to develop

Leader: Help clarify team roles, norms, values



Begins to do real work

Leader: Facilitate task accomplishment



Completion of task for temporary teams

Leader: Bring closure, signify completion


Team cohesiveness


Team Cohesiveness

  • Team interaction -The more time members spend together, the greater the cohesiveness

  • Shared goals - If members agree on the goals , they will be more cohesive

  • Personal attraction to the team - If members have something in common and like being together, the group will be more cohesive

  • A record of success increases commitment to the team

  • Moderate competition with other groups can increase cohesive, if members are already attracted to the team.

Team cohesiveness consequences


Team Cohesiveness Consequences

  • Cohesive teams report high satisfaction and morale.

  • Cohesive teams have more uniform performance because of the team’s influence on members to obey norms.

    If team norms are good for organization, this is an advantage.

    If teams norms run counter to organizational goals, it becomes a disadvantage.

  • Cohesive teams may be highly productive if they believe management is supportive to the team.

Development of team norms


Development of Team Norms

  • Shared guidelines for behavior which most team members follow.

  • Norms are developed through:

    • Shared critical events

    • Those first behaviors which occur often set a precedent

    • Members bring norms from other groups to the new group

    • Norms are stated by members or decided upon by group

Causes of team conflict


Causes of Team Conflict

  • Scarce resources

  • Ambiguity in responsibilities

  • Communication breakdown

  • Personality clashes

  • Power and status differences

  • Different goals

Managing team conflict


Managing Team Conflict

  • Focus on common or superordinate goals

  • Focus on the problem, not the people

  • Obtain more information to create new options

  • Bargain/Negotiate

  • Bring in Mediator

  • Never force a consensus