Research Methods. Previous Comps Questions August 2010.
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Previous Comps Questions
Statistics (Fall 2008)1) A consultant developed a battery of personnel selection test (including 9 subscales) to replace a current test (including 2 subscales) used by an organization. To examine the validity of the new test vis-à-vis the existing one, the consultant administered the two tests on a group of employees in the organization (N=120). He then conducted multiple linear regression analyses to compare the tests. One regression model was examined for each test. Supervisor ratings were used as the criterion for the analyses. Results are shown in Table 1. Suppose you are asked to evaluate the results. Interpret the values in Table 1. Specifically, explain the meanings of the values in columns 3 - 7 to an HR manager of the organization.Based on the results, what is your conclusion about the tests? Which one would you recommend the organization for selecting their employees?
Multiple R: correlation btwn linear combo of IVs and DV
R2: amount of variance in the DVs that the Ivs predict
Adjust R2: R2 taking into account the number of predictors. Will always be less than or equal to R2. Attempts to take into account the phenomenon of statistical shrinkage.
Cross-Validity: correlation btwn linear combo of Ivs created using sample-based regression coefficient & DV in population
Population Validity: population value of multiple R of regression model
New test has higher R square, but when the predictors are taken into account, its adjusted R square is lower than the old test. The old test also has higher population validity and population cross-validity. Also because the old test has fewer predictors, it would be less timely and costly to administer.
Population and cross-validities are also lower (see definition above), so I would recommend keeping the old test.
Statistics (Fall 2008)2) Critics of meta-analysis methods often argue that it is better to conduct a single study with very large sample size than a meta-analysis. This is based on the belief that a major advantage of meta-analysis is that it helps address the problem of low power in primary studies with limited sample sizes. (A) How would you respond to this critique? (B) List the pros and cons each type of study (i.e., meta-analysis, primary study with large sample size) as part of your response.3) One of the assumptions of ANCOVA is that the covariate does not interact with any of the independent (categorical) variables. Why is this important? In other words, what happens when a covariate is included in ANCOVA and it does interact with one of the categorical IV’s?4) Under what circumstances does the inclusion of a control variable in a multiple regression analysis help the researcher to avoid (A) falsely concluding that a relationship exists between their IV (e.g., experience) and their DV (e.g., performance), or (B) falsely concluding that a relationship does not exist between their IV and their DV, and how/why?
Assuming that the study that we’re comparing a meta to is a experimental design
B. Pros of one large study: higher control over exactly what the variables you want in your study are whereas in a meta-analysis your data is limited to the work that other authors have already been done; if the area you’re looking at isn’t well-researched or if it’s a relatively new construct, there won’t be enough studies available to do a meta
Cons of a large sample study: limited because the measures are more prone to error whereas in meta-analysis the errors balance out; relying on significance testing as opposed to confidence intervals; lack of knowledge on what the artifacts that you can tease out are (sampling, measurement errors, range restriction)
Pros of meta-analysis: confidence intervals (more precise band around which the effect size lies without comparing it to an arbitrary number (.05)); statistical control; can look at potential moderators across studies that can’t be looked at in one study; synthesizes research findings
Cons of meta-analysis: garbage in, garbage out; file drawer effect if unpublished studies aren’t looked at; apples and oranges- it is not a panacea for research, requires judgment on how to code for the variables of interest
RM2 5) A researcher is interested in examining the effectiveness of a training program aiming at improving diversity awareness in the workplace. She designed a study using a sample of college undergraduate students. The researcher planned to randomly assign the students into two groups. One group will be put through the training program; the other serves as the control group. She developed a measure including three items to measure the construct diversity awareness. The internal consistency of the measure (coefficient alpha) is estimated to be .70. (A) What type of study is described in question 5? (B) Discuss three of the most worrisome threats to validity in this situation (note: explicitly discuss which types of validities are affected by the threats). (C) What can be done to alleviate concern about each of these threats?
A. Experimental study, Control-Experimental Post-Only
B. Internal validity: Selection threat: because the sample being used comprise of college students, this affects the extent to which you can generalize to the population.
Statistical validity: Reliability of measures: Reliability attenuates validity; Measures of low reliability cannot be depended on to register true change; Control for this by using longer tests with carefully selected items that are highly inter-correlated
Construct validity: mono-operation of construct only one measure of the construct is used.
C. Interval: test the stayers of the groups on some variable collected at the beginning of the study. If the two groups do not vary on a variable that IS related to the DV, then there is no selection threat.
Statistical: to increase reliability, add items.
Construct: add another measure to fix mono-operation of construct.
6) (A) How would you test the following two hypotheses? (B) What effects would demonstrate that both were supported? (C) What effects would demonstrate support for Hypothesis One but not Hypothesis Two? (D) Graphically represent the pattern of results you would expect to see if both were concurrently supported. Finally, (E) graph the pattern of results you would expect to see if only Hypothesis One but not Two was supported.Hypothesis One: After accounting for the positive influence of applicant education, whites will receive significantly higher ratings (1-5 Likert-type scale) than blacks and Hispanics but this difference will be greater when the interviews are conducted face-to-face than when the interviews are conducted by phone. (Kim’s tip: because it says AFTER, it implies ANCOVA since it puts the other IVs AFTER the covariate, whereas regression puts them in simultaneously)Hypothesis Two: Blacks and Hispanics will receive higher ratings (1-5 Likert-type scale) if they are interviewed by phone than they will if they are interviewed face-to-face.
A. h1: use ANCOVA, control variable is applicant education, IV is race, DV is ratings of interview performance, moderator is interview method, which in SPSS you would create an interaction variable by multiplying race and interview method. It’d be practically easier to use ANCOVA b/c you wouldn’t have to make a variable where you do interactions btwn mode and dummy coded race variable. You can say regression as long as you say that you MUST dummy code. You would have to look at the interaction effect AS WELL as the simple effect to see if Whites are higher than Blacks/Whites at a specific level of interview type.
H1: In this hypothesis, we’re testing for a simple effect because we are looking at the specific difference between whites as compared to blacks and Hispanics rather than just looking to see if there is amore general race effect.
H2: simple effect, test a simple effect for Hispanics by mode and another one on Blacks by mode. Simple effect for Blacks for mode, and one for Hispanics for mode. We’re not testing whether they differ from each other, it’s just saying that it’s significant for both of them. If it had said “minorities” then there would be one simple effect of interview type on minorities.
B. 1. significant interaction btwn mode and race. 2. significant simple effect for race in the right direction for both modes. 3. the simple effect for race (Whites are higher than B/H) in f2f is bigger than phone (i.e. comparison of simple effects). 4. significant simple effect of interview mode in the correct direction only looking at the minorities.
C. Everything would be the same except that you wouldn’t have a significant simple effect of interview mode in the correct direction only looking at the minorities
(answered with Kim’s help).
A main effect would be: everyone does better on f2f than on phone. This doesn’t preclude an interaction. It could be that everyone does better AND whites are the most positively affected.
Fall 2009: Research Methods IIn the past several decades, quantitative research reviews based on meta-analysis have mostly replaced qualitative reviews in psychological research. List three major limitations of qualitative review of research findings and explain how meta-analysis can address these limitations.
1. don’t account for file drawer studies, most meta-analyses take into account published vs. unpublished articles
3. cannot process a large number of studies, 3
4. can’t make sense of conflicting findings because no statistical analyses on the data are done
5. can’t look at moderators.
Meta-analysis addresses by: looking at published as well as unpublished studies, can process a large number of studies, use statistical analyses to control for study biases as well as looking at moderator effects. Statistics are not subjective, the outcome is data driven and calculations are made with the help of statistical analyses, not just judgment. Meta-analyses have more power (due to the large number of studies it can pull from) and accommodates the varying effect sizes that can be found in primary studies.
RM1, Fall 2009: What are the major differences between experimental design, quasi-experimental design, and correlational design? Some people argued that only experimental design can provide evidence of causality. What is your reaction to this argument?
Experimental study: random assignment, control of extraneous variables and manipulation of variable(s), can determine causation
Quasi-experimental study: everything except assignment
Correlational design: no controls, no causation
You can still control for different variables in quasi-experimental designs. Longitudinal correlational design can provide some evidence of causality as well.
Research Methods II, Fall 2009:Suppose you hypothesize that test X is biased toward the minority subgroup, such that (a) test X is less related to the criterion of interest (job performance) for the minority subgroup than it is in the majority subgroup, and (b) given a same score on test X, a minority member is likely to have higher true job performance than it is predicted by the test (that is the test underestimates job performance of members of minority subgroup), whereas the test correctly predicts performance of members of the majority subgroup. Design a study that allows you to test this hypothesis. Describe steps, analysis, considerations. Suppose your hypothesis is confirmed. Illustrate the result graphically.
A. Test interaction term for race*test to see if race moderates the relationship btwn the test and job performance.
B. Run two separate regressions and see if there is a difference in adjusted R2 between the two equations.
Collect data on the criteria and the predictor for both groups and regress the criterion onto the predictor for the separate groups. Then you would compare the variance explained for the two separate groups and see if they differ. Can also look at changes in beta weight and their significance.
Ex. GPA on SAT scores for the majority subgroup. Then regress GPA on SAT for the minority subgroup. Look at the adjusted R square. Would expect the R square to be larger for the majority vs. the minority subgroups.
If the hypothesis is proven correct, you would use different regression lines for the two groups. But this is illegal.
Research Methods II, Fall 2009: Recent research has shown that personality factors are related to employee turnover. Suppose you hypothesize that job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) mediate the relationship between personality and turnover. Design a study to test this hypothesis. Specifically, describe your research design, choice of analysis method, (describe all steps involved), justification of your choice (why the analysis method is selected instead of alternative ones), and expected results which would confirm your hypothesis.
Logistic regression because you have a dichotomous DV.
Longitudinal design: collect personality data upon hiring. Collect attitude measures after about 6 months on the job. About a year after hiring, collect turnover .
Baron & Kenny (1986): IV to DV, IV to Mediator. Put all together. If the relationship btwn the IV & DV decreases but remains significant, partial mediation. If the relationship disappears, the mediator completely mediates the relationship btwn the IV & DV.
Spring 2010:, RM1 Assume you were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of two training methods designed to improve job performance. You have a sample of employees in an organization which you can use for your study. For this group of employees, you also have access to their scores on an employment test (the Wonderlic Personnel Test). Describe how you would conduct a study to answer the question about the effectiveness. Specifically: A) Describe your study design B) Explain how would you obtain the variables in your analysis and why you select these variables C) Describe the analysis you plan to conduct; explain why you select this kind of analysis.
IV: two training methods, DV: job performance, Covariate: continuous variable, Wonderlic
This is a post-test experimental design (because all we have are post-test scores) where you would obtain effectiveness scores after we implement the training design.
How would we obtain the variables? Obtain job performance scores (for effectiveness), you could do this by collecting data from supervisor scores, or collecting more performance data from more sources to reduce error. Administer employment test before the training.
ANCOVA, 2-level categorical IV, covariate and DV (as opposed to multiple regression, which you would use if the IV had more than 2 levels)
Spring 2010, RM II: An organization is considering adopting a battery of four tests for personnel selection purpose. You are hired to evaluate the validity of the test battery. Based on a sample of current employees of the organization, you used multiple linear regression analysis to examine how the four tests predict job performance. Tables 1 and 2 below show results of the analysis. A) Explain to the organization about the validity of these tests (specifically, explain all the values shown in Table 1). B) Advise the organization how to use the tests (i.e., how to combine scores on the test and use the resulting composite for selection purpose).
RM I A researcher is interested examining the effectiveness of two intervention methods (A and B) on a learning outcome. She conducted two studies based on two independent samples of college students. In Study 1, subjects receiving intervention A were compared to those in a control group. In Study 2, Subjects receiving Intervention B were compared to those in another control group. Using t-test, the researcher found significant result in Study 1 (p<.05) but not in Study 2 (p=.08). Accordingly, she concluded that Intervention A was more effective than Intervention B. A) Do you agree with the researcher conclusion? Explain. B) If you were the researcher, what would you do? (i.e., what analysis would you conduct?) C) Assume that later it was revealed that the means of learning outcome are actually the same for both Interventions A and B across the studies. Can you think of any explanation for the researcher’s earlier findings (that is, significant result for A but not for B).
An organization is considering adopting a battery of four tests for personnel selection purpose. You are hired to evaluate the validity of the test battery. Based on a sample of current employees of the organization, you used multiple linear regression analysis to examine how the four tests predict job performance. Tables 1 and 2 below show results of the analysis. A) Explain to the organization about the validity of these tests (specifically, explain all the values shown in Table 1). B) Advise the organization how to use the tests (i.e., how to combine scores on the test and use the resulting composite for selection purpose).
Spring 2010, RM II: Compare and contrast moderating and mediating effects. Specifically: A) define, B) provide examples, and C) describe procedures to test them.
Moderation: A. explains WHEN the relationship between two variables becomes stronger or weaker. B. example, in the job characteristics model, growth need strength moderates the relationship between the job characteristics and motivation. B. C. Use multiple regression, include the IVs as well as another term where you multiply the IV by the moderator. If this interaction is signification, then there is a significant moderating effect. Whichever one of the IVs turns out to be the moderator depends on theory.
Mediation: A. relationship btwn predictor and criterion exists because of the existence of a third variable that causes the criterion. B. Use Baron & Kenney (1986) method, determine if IV predicts DV; determine if IV predicts Mediator; (alternate step) Mediator predicts DV; put all the variables in the regression model, if the IV is no longer a significant predictor but the Mediator is, there is full mediation. If the IV is still a significant predictor but the beta weight decreases, then you have partial mediation. This doesn’t necessarily mean that there isn’t full mediation so you could use the Sobel test to determine if there is full mediation or not. For example, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between positive affect and turnover intentions. That is, people that are higher in positive affectivity tend to have higher job satisfaction, and in turn, people that have higher job satisfaction have fewer intentions of turning over.
ARM 4) Under what circumstances does the inclusion of a control variable in a multiple regression analysis help the researcher to avoid (A) falsely concluding that a relationship exists between their IV (e.g., experience) and their DV (e.g., performance), or (B) falsely concluding that a relationship does not exist between their IV and their DV, and how/why?
Type 1: if the control variable is related to the IV as well as the DV, it keeps researchers from erroneously concluding that it was the IV that caused a change in the DV when it was actually the control variable. Type 1 errors always have to do with systematic bias (e.g. confounds).
For example, learning goal oriented individuals could seek opportunities to master tasks as well as having higher job performance, so if this variable is not controlled for, one would conclude that experience predicts job performance when in fact it is LGO.
Type 2: if the control variable is related to the DV but not the IV, then the control variable serves to explain some of the variance in the DV, thereby making it easier to find an effect between the IV and DV.
For example, cognitive ability has been known to be the best predictor of job performance, so if one were to regress performance onto experience while including cognitive ability, you would explain a lot of variance in job performance, thereby having more power to find an effect btwn experience and performance.
ARM 3) One of the assumptions of ANCOVA is that the covariate does not interact with any of the independent (categorical) variables. Why is this important? In other words, what happens when a covariate is included in ANCOVA and it does interact with one of the categorical IV’s?
Applied Research Methods, Fall 2009: suppose you have conducted an experiment in an org setting, and you are concerned about ruling out differential attrition from treatment and control groups. A. what data would you collect and how would you analyze it? B. what pattern of results would indicate that it is present and what would indicate that it’s not present.
A. you would collect individual difference variables at the beginning, preferably more than one.
B. compare the differences on the pre-test variables on the STAYERS. If there is a difference between the two groups on the individual difference variables, then there is differential attrition. If there isn’t a difference on the individual difference variables on stayersbtwn the two groups, then there isn’t differential attrition.
Applied Research Methods, Fall 2009: A. Under what conditions (how?) can a MANOVA help prevent a researcher from false concluding that a manipulation had no significant effect when in fact it did? B. Under what conditions (how?) can MANOVA help prevent a researcher from finding a significant manipulation effect when in fact it did not?
The DVs must be moderately correlated but conceptually related. If they are not related, you would use ANOVA. If they are too related, you collapse them.
Type 2: Type 2 is always about error. Since you’re collecting multiple DVs of a similar construct, they are more likelly to have less error in them than a single measure of the construct. One measure would probably not capture the entire construct (criterion deficiency) and would be less reliable, which attenuates the relationship between the variables.
Type 1: Type is always about systematic bias. Also, running multiple ANOVAs on the same data would increase family wise error, which would make it harder to make an effect.
ARM, Spring 2010: Describe, compare, and contrast the techniques of stratified random sampling and quota sampling. Be sure to specify how/why these techniques differ both in terms of the processes involved and the statement that can be made about the data collected.
Quota sampling: A. splice population based on a particular variable (make sure that it’s related to the DV), but when you go about selecting participants, you use convenience sampling in an effort to fill pre-determined quotas of what you want to end up in your sample. For example, we want 40 males and 50 females, we’ll sample the population until we get those number and then stop. Can’t be sure if the sample is representative of the population so you can only generalize to groups that are similar to the ones that you sampled.
Stratified random sampling: A. slice the population based on a particular variable (make sure that it’s related to the DV) and then randomly sample from those slices. For example, we want males and females, we split the population in two categories (gender) and then randomly select from those two categories. You can either do proportionate or disproportionate sampling, depending on what you want your sample to end up like. You can create a confidence interval and generalize to the entire population you sampled from.
ARM, SP2010: A ) Describe Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) at a conceptual level. Be sure to include in your answer when it is recommended for use, what types of data can be used as predictors, what types of data can be used as DV’s. B) Under what circumstances (what pattern of true relationships) would the use of HLM, and more specifically the ability to account for nested variables, enable a researcher to avoid a false positive decision with respect to his/her hypothesis?, or C) to avoid a false negative decision with respect to his/her hypothesis?
Used when there are variables nested within other variables. It’s similar to a control variable. Ex. Individuals within the team, people within a department. The DV, however, has to be individual level data. The IV can be any kind of variable- categorical, dichotomous or continuous. The DV, however, must be continuous. There is no conceptual reason for a difference between groups but there may be something about belonging to the group can be related to the DV
B. Type 1: partials out variance accounted for by group membership (or whatever the nested variable is); theoretically it’s the same a within-subjects design because anything that is specific to the group gets accounted for.
C. Type 2: increases the power because it reduces the amount of variance in the DV that must be explained.
Fall 2008, RM3: 10) Produced below is a portion of an SPSS Windows output for an exploratory factor analysis. Variables consisted of the answers from 1,783 respondents to eight “yes”/”no” questions (“no” = 0; “yes” = 1), asking respondents to indicate the reasons why they, as television viewers, stay with a show into its second season (respondents were asked to mark all reasons that applied). Summarize and interpret the results from this output that should be included in an APA-style results section. You do not need to write the APA-style results section. Instead tell us what you would need to include in such a write-up.
Fall 2009 RM3: In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the researcher has to make choices regarding a number of methodological approaches. One of these is which method of extraction to use. Compare and contrast (at least) two common methods for the extraction in exploratory factor analysis. Discuss each method’s theoretical underpinnings, and describe the decision process and criteria a researcher should use when deciding on the extraction method to use.
Spring 2010 RM3: One of the four steps of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is “Step 3 – Rotation.” This was not always the case; in fact, ground-breaking work by Stanford-Binet on intelligence testing used principal components analysis for extracting the first two principal components from the intelligence tests, and then called the first one general intelligence “g,” and the second one specific intelligence “s.” However, Stanford-Binet never rotated any of the results. A) Explain what rotation allows the researcher to do. B) Discuss why it may be very important to rotate the results obtained from an initial extraction and truncation, such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA), followed by Kaiser-criterion truncation. C) Briefly describe the two major categories of rotation techniques.
Fall 2008 RM3: Structural Equation Modeling7) (A) Discuss the influence of sample size N on structural equation modeling (SEM). (B) Discuss minimum sample size, statistical power, and n-to-k ratio all within the context of SEM. (C) What, if any, relationship is there between sample size and degrees of freedom in SEM?
Fall 2009, RM3: In Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), situations occur when it is of benefit to fix path coefficients, rather than to estimate them freely. One of these situations is a model that is locally under-identified. In such a case, if you had to fix path coefficients to increase the model’s degrees of freedom (dfs), how would you go about it? Describe how you would determine (a) which paths to fix, (b) how to practically fix them, and (c) what two conceptual alternatives for determining how to fix the path coefficients would be.
Spring 2010, RM3: A ) Describe and discuss the two major categories of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, i.e., Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and SEM of Latent-Variable Effects Models. B) How do the models used in CFA vs. SEM of Latent-Variable Effects Models differ? C) If you choose to use the two stage approach where you first use CFA and then SEM, will you always get the same path coefficients? Why or why not?
Fall 2008, Psychometrics: 8) Describe, compare and contrast Guttman and Thurstone attitude scaling. Illustrate your discussion with appropriate examples.
Fall 2008, Psychometrics: A psychological test publishing company is disappointing with the personality measure that they market for use in HR selection. In particular, they cite poor validity coefficients with job performance criteria and response distortion in job applicant samples as big problems with the measure. In an effort to address these issues, one of their internal consultants has developed another measure of the five-factor model that can be completed for an applicant by their prior supervisor. The company wishes to conduct validation research that will accomplish the following three objectives: determine whether the new measure indeed taps the big five personality dimensions, determine whether the new measure predicts job performance better than the old measure, and determine whether the new measure results in less response distortion than the old measure. Describe the manner in which you would accomplish these three objectives. In other words, describe the validation research you would conduct.
Fall 2009: Compare and contrast the main tenets of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). What do the two theories have in common, and what are the differences between them? For each difference, discuss whether you consider the difference a strength of CTT, of IRT, or of neither.
Fall 2009: Campbell and Fiske (1959) proposed the multi-trait, multi-method matrix as a way of assessing convergent and discriminant validity. How does the MTMM matrix accomplish this, and how do convergent and discriminant validity relate to the concept of construct validity? What are potential pitfalls of using MTMM matrices to assess the construct validity of a test? In your answer, make sure to first describe, in detail, what the components are of an MTMM matrix.
Fall 2010: When developing a new test, it is insufficient to simply identify a construct and write items that form homogeneous scales. Explain, in detail, according to Cronbach and Meehl (1955), what should be done to justify the development of a new test.
Fall 2010: Guttman scaling is sometimes called a “perfect scale.” List the assumptions underlying Guttman scaling. How can you tell if you have produced a “perfect” Guttman scale? Assume that you are interested in attitudes toward statistics. Write 4 items that are likely to form a perfect Guttman scale on attitudes toward statistics.