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FORMALIZATION OF ASGM: Is It Possible To Achieve? Maria Laura Barreto firstname.lastname@example.org. Why Artisanal And Small Scale Mining? Poverty Persists in Developing Countries. Source: AJ Gunson/CASM. Why Artisanal And Small Scale Mining?.
Poverty Persists in Developing Countries
Source: AJ Gunson/CASM
ILO research (1999) on 28 countries concludes:
The proportion of illegal mines -- those operating without the necessary authorization - varied from 50 to 80 per cent… If these figures can be considered a valid sample, the extent of illegal small-scale mining is very high and so, therefore, are the likely financial losses to the countries and regions most affected.
ASGM versus LSGM
Mineral Resource is in Open Access
Redefine the approach to ASGM
ASGM exists because
Geological and physical and chemical conditions of the deposits and mineral produce allow simplified forms of extraction, processing, transport and commercialization. It includes secondary deposits (placer/alluvial deposits), some superficial primary deposits and more recently, some abandoned mines.
ASGM is an economic mining activity that is here to stay, an activity that the poor can perform. It can become a legalized livelihood profitable for all involved and can contribute to poverty alleviation and a sustainable society in less economically developed countries (LDC) and developing countries.
The definition of ASM is critical to guide for public policy
500,000 to 1 M, and some estimates indicate 1.5 M people in ASM(Carstens et al, 2009; Society for International Development, 2009)
National gold exports reached $1.076 B in 2009, ASGM may account for 10% of Tanzanian gold production
Microfinance Policies: develop microfinance services specifically tailored for the artisanal and small-scale mining sector.
Programs for Capacity-Building: training activities with artisanal and small-scale mining groups to improve environmental management, technology upgrade programs and regional regulatory implementation.
Decentralized Permitting: introduces a new system of decentralizing the permitting process for Primary Mining Licenses with objective to be more efficient and more accessible within rural communities.
Land Allocation Policies for Small-Scale Mining:measures for allocating specific land areas for small-scale mining. To make this policy effective they need to;
conduct geological studies and
to ensure that mining groups are not unfairly marginalized
The new Act (2009) defines Artisanal (AL) and Small-scale mining licenses (SL) with following conditions,
Sierra Leone is estimated to have 150–200,000 artisanal and small-scale miners working in diamonds and gold
The 2004 Mining Code replaced the Mines and Minerals Act 2009. The country is in the process of replacing its 2005 “Policy Measures relating to Small Scale and Artisanal Mining and Marketing of Precious Minerals” with its new multidimensional “Artisanal Mining Policy” after a process of consultation
Legislative Overview cont’d
Artisanal mining employs in the area in which the licence is issued not more than fifty labourers or contributersper artisanal mining licence
The area should be demarcated as an ASM area
Environmental assessments and management programs should be provided in a small-scale license and a more simplified assessment and plan for Artisanal license
May consider the following,
Assess the impact of such small areas in particular for artisanal mining
Removes reference to the number of workers for an artisanal license
Allows for renewal until the end of exploitation
To learn more about these recommendations please consult ARM’s legalization guide for ASGM and help us to improve it…
it is possible and is a necessary route to take