EMBA 225 Week 1 The Individual: Attitudes, Values and Motivation. What are attitudes?. Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component
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The Individual: Attitudes, Values and Motivation
The opinion or belief segment of an attitude
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth
Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)
Perceived Organizational Support
Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being
An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization
Behavior directed toward leaving the organization
Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions
Passively waiting for conditions to improve
Allowing conditions to worsen
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values
The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs
Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
Managers See Workers as…
Managers See Workers as…
*(NOTE: THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT)
Both Hygiene Factors & Motivators are Important
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution)
“Who got what?”
Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution)
“How was who gets what decided?”
The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect.
“Was I treated well?”
Job Rotation (e.g., “Cross-training”)
The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another
The long-term horizontal expansion of jobs
The long-term vertical expansion of jobs
Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.
The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job
Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.
Larger labor pool
Reduced office-space costs
Less direct supervision of employees
Difficult to coordinate teamwork
Difficult to evaluate non-quantitative performanceTelecommuting
Employee Involvement Program
A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success
Theory Y(Believing Employees Want to Be Involved)
Employee Involvement Programs
Two-Factor Theory(Intrinsic Motivation)
Piece Rate Pay Plans
Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
Profit Sharing Plans
Organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability
An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.
Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
Skill-based Pay Plans
ERG Theory (Growth)
McClelland’s Need for Achievement
Employees tailor their benefit program to meet their personal need by picking and choosing from a menu of benefit options.