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EMBA 225 Week 1 The Individual: Attitudes, Values and Motivation. What are attitudes?. Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component

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EMBA 225 Week 1

The Individual: Attitudes, Values and Motivation

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What are attitudes?

Cognitive Component

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude


Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events

Affective Component

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

Behavioral Component

An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

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Types of Attitudes

Job Satisfaction

A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job

Job Involvement

Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth

Organizational Commitment

Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)

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Types of Attitudes, cont’d

Perceived Organizational Support

Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being

Employee Engagement

An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization

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Expressing Dissatisfaction


Behavior directed toward leaving the organization


Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions


Passively waiting for conditions to improve


Allowing conditions to worsen

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Types of Values

Terminal Values

Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Instrumental Values

Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values

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What Is Motivation?


The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

  • Intensity: How hard a person tries

  • Direction: Toward beneficial goal

  • Persistence: How long a person tries

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Performance = f(A x M x O)

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Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)

Hierarchy of Needs Theory

There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Lower-Order Needs

Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs

Higher-Order Needs

Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs






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Having Little Ambition

Theory X

Managers See Workers as…

Disliking Work

Avoiding Responsibility


Theory Y

Managers See Workers as…

Enjoying Work

Accepting Responsibility

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  • Positive reinforcement

    • Providing a reward for a desired behavior

  • Negative reinforcement

    • Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs

  • *Punishment

    • Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior


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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Both Hygiene Factors & Motivators are Important

Separate Constructs

  • Hygiene Factors—Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction

  • Motivation Factors—Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction

  • Hygiene Factors

  • Salary

  • Work Conditions

  • Perks (free dry cleaning, coffee, snacks, etc.)

  • Motivators

  • Achievement

  • Responsibility

  • Growth

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What Is MBO?

Management by Objectives (MBO)

A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress

  • Key Elements

  • Goal specificity

  • Participative decision making

  • An explicit time period

  • Performance feedback

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Equity Theory

Equity Theory

Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities

  • Referent Comparisons:

  • Self-inside

  • Self-outside

  • Other-inside

  • Other-outside

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Choices For Dealing With Inequity

  • Change inputs (slack off)

  • Change outcomes (increase output)

  • Distort/change perceptions of self

  • Distort/change perceptions of others

  • Choose a different referent person

  • Leave the field (quit the job)

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Equity and Justice

Distributive Justice

Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution)

“Who got what?”

Procedural Justice

Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution)

“How was who gets what decided?”

Interactional Justice

The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect.

“Was I treated well?”

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Job Design and Scheduling

Job Rotation (e.g., “Cross-training”)

The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another

Job Enlargement

The long-term horizontal expansion of jobs

Job Enrichment

The long-term vertical expansion of jobs

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Alternative Work Arrangements


Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.

Job Sharing

The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job

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Alternative Work Arrangements, cont.


Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.

  • Categories of Telecommuting Jobs

  • Routine information-handling tasks

  • Mobile activities

  • Professional and other knowledge-related tasks

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Larger labor pool

Higher productivity

Less turnover

Improved morale

Reduced office-space costs

Disadvantages (Employer)

Less direct supervision of employees

Difficult to coordinate teamwork

Difficult to evaluate non-quantitative performance


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What Is Employee Involvement (EI)?

Employee Involvement Program

A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success

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Linking EI Programs and Motivation Theories

Theory Y(Believing Employees Want to Be Involved)

Employee Involvement Programs

Two-Factor Theory(Intrinsic Motivation)

ERG Theory(EmployeeNeeds)

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Rewarding Employees: Four Aspects

  • What to Pay (Internal vs. external equity)

  • How to Pay (e.g., Piece rate, merit based, bonuses, profit sharing, gain sharing, ESOPs, skill-based pay)

  • What Benefits to Offer (e.g., Flexible benefits)

  • How to Recognize Employees

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Rewarding Employees: Variable Pay Programs

  • Variable Pay Programs

  • A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organization measure of performance.

    • Piece rate pay plans

    • Profit sharing plans

    • Gain sharing plans

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Variable Pay Programs (cont’d)

Piece Rate Pay Plans

Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.

Profit Sharing Plans

Organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability

Gain Sharing

An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.

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Rewarding Employees

Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)

Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.

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Skill-based Pay Plans

Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.

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Linking Skill-based Plans and Motivation Theories

Reinforcement Theory

Skill-based Pay Plans



ERG Theory (Growth)

McClelland’s Need for Achievement

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Flexible Benefits

Employees tailor their benefit program to meet their personal need by picking and choosing from a menu of benefit options.

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Employee Recognition Programs

  • Intrinsic rewards: Stimulate Intrinsic Motivation

    • Personal attention given to employee

    • Approval and appreciation for a job well done

    • Growing in popularity and usage

  • Benefits of Programs

    • Fulfill employees’ desire for recognition

    • ***Inexpensive to implement ***

    • Encourages repetition of desired behaviors

  • Drawbacks of Programs

    • Susceptible to manipulation by management

    • You HAVE to be sincere and make it open to all